مصري فيت

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته نامل ان تكون في اتم صحه وعافيه
مصري فيت

منتدي لعلوم الطب البيطري وما يشملها


    Genital Herpes

    شاطر

    admin
    Admin

    المساهمات : 2529
    تاريخ التسجيل : 22/03/2010
    العمر : 56
    الموقع : O.KATTAB@YAHOO.COM

    Genital Herpes

    مُساهمة من طرف admin في الجمعة مايو 20, 2011 3:35 pm



    Stress as a predictor of symptomatic genital herpesnext term virus recurrence in women with human immunodeficiency virus

    Deidre Byrnes PereiraCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, a, b, Michael H. Antonia, c, Aimee Danielsona, Trudi Simonb, JoNell Efantis-Potterb, Charles S. Carvera, Ron E. F. Durána, Gail Ironsona, c, Nancy Klimasa, d, Mary Ann Fletcherd and Mary Jo O'Sullivanb

    a University of Miami, Department of Psychology, Coral Gables, FL, USA

    b University of Miami School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Miami, FL, USA

    c University of Miami School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Miami, FL, USA

    d University of Miami School of Medicine, Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, Miami, FL, USA
    Received 11 July 2001;
    accepted 7 March 2002. ;
    Available online 22 February 2003.
    Abstract

    Objective: previous termGenital herpes (Herpesnext term Simplex Virus Type 2, HSV-2) is a significant public health problem for HIV+ women, who have high rates of HSV-2 seropositivity and elevated risk for HSV-2 associated morbidity and mortality. Life stress has been identified as a co-factor in previous termgenital herpesnext term recurrence. However, no research has evaluated the relationship between stress and previous termgenital herpesnext term recurrences in HIV+ women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress was associated with symptomatic previous termgenital herpesnext term recurrences in women seropositive for HIV and HSV-2. Methods: Thirty-four HIV-infected African–American and Caribbean–American women underwent a psychosocial interview, blood draw and gynecologic examination to assess gynecologic symptoms (including previous termgenital herpes)next term at study entry. Life stress was measured using a 10-item modified version of the Life Experiences Survey (LES). previous termGenital herpesnext term recurrence over 1-year follow-up was abstracted using medical chart review. Results: Using hierarchical linear regression analysis, life stress at study entry was significantly associated with number of previous termgenital herpesnext term recurrences during 1-year follow-up (β=.38, P=.03) after controlling for HIV disease variables and relevant behavioral factors. Recent life stress, in particular, was highly predictive of previous termgenital herpesnext term recurrence during follow-up (β=.57, P=.002). The relationship between life stress and previous termgenital herpesnext term recurrence persisted after controlling for HSV-2 viral reactivation (i.e., HSV-2 IgG titers) at study entry. Conclusion: These findings suggest that stress may be a significant predictor of previous termgenital herpesnext term recurrence in women with HIV and HSV-2. Stress management interventions may buffer HSV-related morbidity and mortality in women with HIV.

    Author Keywords: previous termGenital herpesnext term; HIV; Stress; Women
    Abstract

    The prevalence of previous termgenital herpesnext term is increasing in several populations worldwide. Factors that may be contributing to this increase include greater numbers of sexual partners, the high frequency of asymptomatic infections, poor use of safe sexual practices, and possibly the decreased incidence of childhood oral previous termherpesnext term simplex virus infection. Transmission occurs via skin-to-skin or mucous membrane contact during periods of viral shedding when lesions are present but may also occur when the patient is unaware of the lesions or when lesions are not clinically apparent. This has important implications for strategies to prevent transmission of the disease. The introduction of the antiherpes agent, acyclovir, and more recently famciclovir and valacyclovir, facilitates the management of previous termgenital herpes.next term Treatment of first-episode previous termgenital herpesnext term reduces the severity and duration of symptoms, time to lesion healing, and cessation of viral shedding. Episodic treatment of recurrences as they occur may be of benefit to some patients. Daily suppressive therapy significantly reduces the frequency of recurrences and asymptomatic viral shedding. Accordingly, patients who experience frequent or severe recurrences, those particularly troubled by their disease, and those who wish to reduce the frequency of asymptomatic infection generally prefer suppressive therapy. The possibility that suppressive therapy may have an impact on transmission of the disease is currently under investigation. Antiviral treatments have important implications for public health and may help reduce the psychological and psychosocial impact of previous termgenital herpesnext term on individual patients.

    Author Keywords: previous termHerpesnext term simplex virus; previous termGenital herpes; Herpesnext term epidemiology; previous termHerpesnext term treatment

    Index Terms: previous termgenital herpes;next term aciclovir; valaciclovir; famciclovir
    Article Outline


    Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview

    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    B.P. Stonera
    [Author vitae]

    aWashington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA

    Available online 20 August 2008.
    Abstract

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) exert a major toll on human communities worldwide. Bacterial and protozoan infections are curable with antimicrobial therapy, while viral infections are treatable but not curable in the classic sense. STIs can cause immediate pain and suffering, profound psychosocial stress, and serious, long-term health consequences. Many STIs are asymptomatic, and surveillance systems to track STIs are incomplete in developed and developing countries. STIs have been shown to be important cofactors in HIV transmission. New approaches to STI control and prevention are needed to reduce the spread of infection and minimize associated suffering.

    Author Keywords: Chancroid; Chlamydia; Genital herpes; Gonorrhea; Human papillomavirus; Partner notification; referral; Sexually transmitted infections; Syphilis; Trichomoniasis
    Article Outline


    Introduction


    History and Epidemiology of STIs


    Transmission Dynamics of STIs


    Classification of STI Pathogens
    • Syphilis
    • Gonorrhea
    • Chlamydia
    • Chancroid
    • Genital Herpes
    • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection
    • Trichomoniasis


    Consequences of STIs


    STI Control and Prevention
    • Partner Notification and Referral


    The Future of STIs


    Conclusion

    Further Reading

    References

    Vitae



    New developments in the epidemiology, natural history and management of genital herpes
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    Lawrence StanberryCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, a, Anthony Cunninghamb, Gregory Mertzc, Adrian Mindeld, Barry Peterse, Michael Reitanof, Stephen Sacksg, Anna Waldh, Sawko Wassilewi and Paul Woolleyj

    a Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA

    b Westmead Institutes of Health Research, Level 2, Room 2145, Westmead Hospital, Westmead NSW 2145, Sydney, Australia

    c Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Biomedical Research Facility 323, 915 Camino de Salud, Albuquerque NM 87131-5271, USA

    d Academic Unit of Sexual Health Medicine, The University of Sydney, Sydney Hospital, GPO Box 1614, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia

    e Academic Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Guy’s and St Thomas’s Medical and Dental School, Lambeth Palace Road, London SE1 7EH, UK

    f Riverview Medical Associates, 51 East 25th Street, New York, NY 10010, USA

    g Viridae Clinical Sciences, Inc, and Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y8, Canada

    h Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Washington, WA, USA

    i Department of Dermatology, Klinikum Krefeld, 47805 Krefeld, Germany

    j Department of Genito-urinary Medicine, Withington Hospital, Manchester M20 2LR, UK
    Received 4 November 1998;
    accepted 17 December 1998.
    Available online 21 May 1999.
    Abstract

    The prevalence of genital herpes is increasing in several populations worldwide. Factors that may be contributing to this increase include greater numbers of sexual partners, the high frequency of asymptomatic infections, poor use of safe sexual practices, and possibly the decreased incidence of childhood oral herpes simplex virus infection. Transmission occurs via skin-to-skin or mucous membrane contact during periods of viral shedding when lesions are present but may also occur when the patient is unaware of the lesions or when lesions are not clinically apparent. This has important implications for strategies to prevent transmission of the disease. The introduction of the antiherpes agent, acyclovir, and more recently famciclovir and valacyclovir, facilitates the management of genital herpes. Treatment of first-episode genital herpes reduces the severity and duration of symptoms, time to lesion healing, and cessation of viral shedding. Episodic treatment of recurrences as they occur may be of benefit to some patients. Daily suppressive therapy significantly reduces the frequency of recurrences and asymptomatic viral shedding. Accordingly, patients who experience frequent or severe recurrences, those particularly troubled by their disease, and those who wish to reduce the frequency of asymptomatic infection generally prefer suppressive therapy. The possibility that suppressive therapy may have an impact on transmission of the disease is currently under investigation. Antiviral treatments have important implications for public health and may help reduce the psychological and psychosocial impact of genital herpes on individual patients.

    Author Keywords: Herpes simplex virus; Genital herpes; Herpes epidemiology; Herpes treatment

    Index Terms: genital herpes; aciclovir; valaciclovir; famciclovir

    Fausto BoselliCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Giuseppe Chiossi, Marisa Bortolamasi and Andrea Gallinelli

    Department of Gynecological, Obstetric and Pediatric Sciences, Section of Gynecology, Unit of Colposcopy, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
    Received 1 April 2003;
    Revised 1 January 2004;
    accepted 18 May 2004.
    Available online 12 October 2004.
    Abstract

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of previous termherpesnext term simplex virus (HSV) shedding among women attending Italian colposcopy clinics and describe their lifestyle, demographic characteristics, previous termgenitalnext term symptoms and signs. Study design: A cross-sectional study was performed to assess shedding of HSV among 4565 women requiring a gynecological consultation. An amplified enzyme immunoassay that detects an HSV type-common glycoprotein D was used to reveal HSV shedding in cervical specimens. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test and Student’s t test. Results: A prevalence of 7.8% was found among colposcopy clinic patients. No significant differences regarding patients’ average age, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive method used, and number of sexual partners in the previous year were found between subjects with and without viral shedding (P > 0.05). The detection of a concomitant previous termgenitalnext term infection with Trichomonas vaginalis as well as the report of previous episodes of previous termgenital herpesnext term (GH) were significantly higher in the positive group (P < 0.01). Only 2.8% of the patients shedding HSV presented with vesicles and ulcers, with the majority of them being asymptomatic. Conclusion: This is the first Italian survey on previous termgenital herpesnext term conducted among colposcopy clinic patients. Our data show that the prevalence of HSV shedding in this study population is high and confirms that the disease is often asymptomatic. The demographics and behavioural variables of women shedding HSV seem to differ from the ones assessed in high risk patients.

    Author Keywords: previous termGenital herpesnext term; Viral shedding; Enzyme immunoassay; Colposcopy clinics
    Article Outline
    Famciclovir treatment options for patients with frequent outbreaks of recurrent genital herpes:next term The RELIEF trialstar, open
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    Brenda L. Bartletta, 1, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Stephen K. Tyringa, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Kenneth Fifeb, 2, E-mail The Corresponding Author, John W. Gnann Jr.c, 3, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Joseph T. Hadalad, 4, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Farid Kianifardd, 4, E-mail The Corresponding Author and Erhan Berberd, 4, E-mail The Corresponding Author

    aUniversity of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, United States

    bIndiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States

    cUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham and Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, United States

    dNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, One Health Plaza, East Hanover, NJ 07936-1080, United States
    Received 18 April 2008;
    revised 4 June 2008;
    accepted 4 June 2008.
    Available online 14 July 2008.
    Referred to by: Erratum to “Famciclovir treatment options for patients with frequent outbreaks of recurrent genital herpes: The RELIEF trial” [J. Clin. Virol. 43 (October (2)) (2008) 190–195]
    Journal of Clinical Virology, Volume 44, Issue 2, February 2009, Page 183,
    Brenda L. Bartlett, Stephen K. Tyring, Kenneth Fife, John W. Gnann Jr., Joseph T. Hadala, Farid Kianifard, Erhan Berber
    PDF (83 K) |
    Abstract
    Background

    Recurrent previous termgenitalnext term HSV outbreaks are common among those suffering from the disease. Antiviral medications taken as suppressive therapy can reduce the frequency of these recurrences and reduce viral shedding occurring in between recurrences.
    Objectives

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of oral famciclovir as episodic (125 mg twice daily for 5 days) and suppressive (250 mg twice daily) treatment of recurrent previous termgenital herpesnext term (RGH).
    Study design

    This was a randomized, multicenter, 6-month, open-label study. Efficacy variables were time to first recurrence of RGH symptoms, and change in total score of the Recurrent previous termGenital Herpesnext term Quality of Life (RGHQoL) questionnaire. Subject satisfaction questions were summarized.
    Results

    384 subjects were randomized. There was a highly statistically significant difference between treatments in time to first recurrence of symptoms in favor of suppressive treatment (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between treatments in total score of the RGHQoL or in subject satisfaction with treatment.
    Conclusions

    This study demonstrated that, compared to episodic treatment, suppressive treatment with oral famciclovir may extend the time to symptomatic outbreaks in patients with frequent recurrences of previous termgenital herpes.next term

    Keywords: Famciclovir; previous termGenital herpesnext term; Recurrent; previous termHerpesnext term simplex virus
    Article Outline

    1.
    Introduction

    2.
    Methods
    2.1. Study design
    2.2. Subjects
    2.3. Efficacy and safety assessments
    2.4. Statistical analysis

    3.
    Results
    3.1. Subjects
    3.2. Efficacy
    3.3. Safety

    4.
    Discussion

    5.
    Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References



    star, openClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00219310, [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
    Corresponding Author Contact InformationCorresponding author at: Center for Clinical Studies, 2060 Space Park Drive, Houston, TX 77058, United States. Tel.: +1 713 528 8818; fax: +1 281 335 4605.
    1 Center for Clinical Studies, 6655 Travis Street #120, Houston, TX 77030, United States. Tel.: +1 713 528 8818; fax: +1 713 528 8848.
    2 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, 435 EH, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, MS 420, Indianapolis, IN 46202, United States. Tel.: +1 317 274 8114; fax: +1 317 274 8009.
    3 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, 908 20th Street South, Suite 220, Birmingham, AL 35205, United States.


    Recurrences after first episodes of genital herpesnext term in patients treated with topical acyclovir cream
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    I.G. BartonCorresponding Author Contact Information, 1, G.R. Kinghorn2, M. Rowland2, M. Jeavons2, L.S. Al-Omer1 and C.W. Potter1

    1Department of Virology, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, U.K.

    2Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2RX, U.K.
    Received 8 December 1983;
    accepted 21 February 1984.
    Available online 11 November 2002.
    Abstract

    The effect of topical acyclovir treatment of first episode previous termgenital herpesnext term on the time to first recurrence in a group of 42 patients receiving either acyclovir or placebo was investigated. Topical acyclovir treatment had no effect on time to first recurrence in patients with either first episode HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. There was no significant difference in the time to first recurrence in patients with either true primary or initial previous termgenitalnext term infections. However, the time to first recurrence in patients with first episode HSV-2 was significantly shorter than in patients with first episode HSV-1. Acyclovir treatment appeared to have no effect on the development of neutralising antibody in patients with either virus type.

    Keywords: acyclovir; recurrence; previous termgenital herpesnext term


    Recurrences after first episodes of genital herpesnext term in patients treated with topical acyclovir cream
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    I.G. BartonCorresponding Author Contact Information, 1, G.R. Kinghorn2, M. Rowland2, M. Jeavons2, L.S. Al-Omer1 and C.W. Potter1

    1Department of Virology, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, U.K.

    2Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2RX, U.K.
    Received 8 December 1983;
    accepted 21 February 1984.
    Available online 11 November 2002.
    Abstract

    The effect of topical acyclovir treatment of first episode previous termgenital herpesnext term on the time to first recurrence in a group of 42 patients receiving either acyclovir or placebo was investigated. Topical acyclovir treatment had no effect on time to first recurrence in patients with either first episode HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. There was no significant difference in the time to first recurrence in patients with either true primary or initial previous termgenitalnext term infections. However, the time to first recurrence in patients with first episode HSV-2 was significantly shorter than in patients with first episode HSV-1. Acyclovir treatment appeared to have no effect on the development of neutralising antibody in patients with either virus type.
    Herpesnext term simplex virus type 2 detection by culture and polymerase chain reaction and relationship to previous termgenitalnext term symptoms and cervical antibody status during the third trimester of pregnancystar, open, , star, openstar, open, , star, filled, , star, filledstar, filled
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    Kim A. Boggess MDa, D.Heather Watts MD a, Ann C. Hobson PhD b, Rhoda L. Ashley PhD b, Zane A. Brown MD a and Lawrence Corey MD b

    Seattle, Washington
    Received 30 July 1996;
    revised 12 September 1996;
    accepted 15 October 1996.
    Available online 4 November 2005.
    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to define the frequency of asymptomatic previous termherpesnext term simplex virus type 2 shedding by culture and polymerase chain reaction and to correlate our findings with cervical anti–previous termherpesnext term simplex virus type 2 immunoglobulin A production.

    STUDY DESIGN: Women who were seropositive for previous termherpesnext term simplex virus type 2 collected daily previous termgenitalnext term tract samples during the third trimester for culture and deoxyribonucleic acid quantitation by polymerase chain reaction. Cervical secretions were collected weekly for anti–previous termherpesnext term simplex virus type 2 immunoglobulin A. Asymptomatic shedding by culture versus polymerase chain reaction and anti–previous termherpesnext term simplex virus type 2 immunoglobulin A detection with and without previous termgenitalnext term shedding were compared by means of McNemar's χ2 test.

    RESULTS: Asymptomatic shedding was more frequent by polymerase chain reaction than by culture (13.8% vs 2.3%, p < 0.0001). When cervical anti–previous termherpesnext term simplex virus type 2 immunoglobulin A was present, patients were more likely to have negative results by polymerase chain reaction than positive results (66.7% vs 26.7%, p = 0.001). Anti–previous termherpesnext term simplex virus type 2 immunoglobulin A was detected beyond 37 weeks in only one subject.

    CONCLUSIONS: Polymerase chain reaction was more sensitive than culture for detecting asymptomatic previous termgenital herpesnext term simplex virus. The role of immunoglobulin A in clearing previous termgenital herpesnext term simplex virus remains to be determined. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;176:443-51.)

    Keywords: previous termgenital herpesnext term simplex virus; polymerase chain reaction; immunoglobulin A
    Article Outline

    Material and methods
    Patient population
    Specimen collection
    Laboratory methods and viral culture
    Laboratory methods and PCR
    Laboratory methods and cervical antibody detection
    Data analysis

    Results
    HSV shedding throughout third trimester
    Cervical anti-HSV-2 IgG and IgA

    Comment

    Acknowledgements

    References

    star, openFrom the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecologya and Laboratory Medicine,b University of Washington Medical Center.star, openstar, openSupported by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases training grant AI-01740-17 and Program Project grant AI-30731-04.star, filledReprint requests: Kim A. Boggess MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3967, Durham, NC 27710.star, filledstar, filled6/1/78619




    CpG oligodeoxynucleotide augments HSV-2 glycoprotein D DNA vaccine efficacy to generate T helper 1 response and subsequent protection against primary genital herpesnext term infection in mice
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    Sara Tengvall, Agnetha Josefsson, Jan Holmgren and Ali M. HarandiCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author

    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Göteborg University Vaccine Research Institute (GUVAX), Göteborg University, Medicinaregatan 7A, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden
    Received 9 February 2005;
    revised 25 May 2005;
    accepted 3 June 2005.
    Available online 17 October 2005.
    Abstract

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a combined use of DNA vaccine of HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD DNA) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) in comparison to gD DNA vaccine alone in inducing immunity against previous termgenitalnext term HSV-2 infection. Intramuscular vaccination of C57Bl/6 mice with gD DNA followed 48 h later by CpG ODN administration conferred a strong immunity against previous termgenital herpesnext term infection. This was concomitant with development of a robust specific IgG2c (an indicator of Th1-type response in C57Bl/6 mice) antibody response as well as IFN-γ production by previous termgenitalnext term lymph node and spleen cells in vitro. Administration of CpG ODN prior to gD DNA immunization, on the other hand, was inferior to immunization with gD DNA alone in providing protection against macroscopic signs of the disease. Consistent with the in vivo protection data, mice immunized with CpG ODN followed by gD DNA vaccine showed decreased specific lymphoproliferative and IFN-γ responses compared to gD DNA vaccinated mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that timely administration of CpG ODN augments the immunity elicited by gD DNA vaccine, resulting in augmented Th1-type immunity against previous termgenital herpesnext term infection in mice. These findings emphasize the value of using CpG ODN in a DNA vaccination scheme against previous termgenital herpesnext term and merit also further evaluation in genetic vaccination approaches against other sexually transmitted infections.

    Keywords: previous termGenital herpesnext term; HSV; DNA vaccine; CpG
    Article Outline

    1.
    Introduction

    2.
    Materials and methods
    2.1. Mice
    2.2. Bacterial strains and plasmids
    2.3. CpG ODN
    2.4. Recombinant DNA techniques
    2.5. Limulus amebocyte lysates (LAL) test
    2.6. Analysis of protein expression in vitro
    2.7. Vaccination schemes
    2.8. Proliferation assay
    2.9. Cytokine quantification
    2.10. Extraction of antibodies from vagina
    2.11. Analysis of antibody response
    2.12. Virus and virus challenge
    2.13. Monitoring of infection
    2.14. Statistical analysis

    3.
    Results
    3.1. Influence of CpG ODN delivery before or after gD DNA vaccination on induction of acquired humoral immunity
    3.2. Impact of CpG ODN administration before or after gD DNA vaccination on induction of acquired cell-mediated immune response
    3.3. Effect of CpG ODN delivery before or after gD DNA vaccination on induction of protection against genital herpes infection and disease
    3.4. Mucosal administration of gD DNA vaccine followed by CpG ODN treatment failed to elicit protection against genital herpes infection



    Herpesnext term simplex virus glycoprotein treatment of recurrent previous termgenital herpesnext term reduces cervicovaginal virus shedding in guinea pigs
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    Martin G. Myers1, David I. Bernstein1, 2, Christopher J. Harrison1 and Lawrence R. Stanberry1

    1Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital Research Foundation, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A.

    2James Gamble Institute of Medical Research, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A.
    Received 2 June 1988;
    accepted 14 July 1988.
    Available online 12 November 2002.
    Abstract

    Treatment of previously infected guinea pigs with previous termherpesnext term simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins reduces the frequency and severity of subsequent previous termgenitalnext term recurrences. An effective vaccine should also reduce episodes of viral shedding. In this study, HSV glycoproteins B and D treatment of animals experiencing recurrent previous termgenital herpesnext term reduced the frequency of both clinical recurrences and cervicovaginal viral shedding. When virus was shed, however, the peak viral titer and duration of shedding was unaltered.

    Keywords: Glycoprotein; Immunotherapy; Recurrent previous termgenital herpesnext term



    CpG oligodeoxynucleotide augments HSV-2 glycoprotein D DNA vaccine efficacy to generate T helper 1 response and subsequent protection against primary genital herpesnext term infection in mice
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    Sara Tengvall, Agnetha Josefsson, Jan Holmgren and Ali M. HarandiCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author

    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Göteborg University Vaccine Research Institute (GUVAX), Göteborg University, Medicinaregatan 7A, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden
    Received 9 February 2005;
    revised 25 May 2005;
    accepted 3 June 2005.
    Available online 17 October 2005.
    Abstract

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a combined use of DNA vaccine of HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD DNA) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) in comparison to gD DNA vaccine alone in inducing immunity against previous termgenitalnext term HSV-2 infection. Intramuscular vaccination of C57Bl/6 mice with gD DNA followed 48 h later by CpG ODN administration conferred a strong immunity against previous termgenital herpesnext term infection. This was concomitant with development of a robust specific IgG2c (an indicator of Th1-type response in C57Bl/6 mice) antibody response as well as IFN-γ production by previous termgenitalnext term lymph node and spleen cells in vitro. Administration of CpG ODN prior to gD DNA immunization, on the other hand, was inferior to immunization with gD DNA alone in providing protection against macroscopic signs of the disease. Consistent with the in vivo protection data, mice immunized with CpG ODN followed by gD DNA vaccine showed decreased specific lymphoproliferative and IFN-γ responses compared to gD DNA vaccinated mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that timely administration of CpG ODN augments the immunity elicited by gD DNA vaccine, resulting in augmented Th1-type immunity against previous termgenital herpesnext term infection in mice. These findings emphasize the value of using CpG ODN in a DNA vaccination scheme against previous termgenital herpesnext term and merit also further evaluation in genetic vaccination approaches against other sexually transmitted infections.

    Keywords: previous termGenital herpesnext term; HSV; DNA vaccine; CpG
    Article Outline

    1.
    Introduction

    2.
    Materials and methods
    2.1. Mice
    2.2. Bacterial strains and plasmids
    2.3. CpG ODN
    2.4. Recombinant DNA techniques
    2.5. Limulus amebocyte lysates (LAL) test
    2.6. Analysis of protein expression in vitro
    2.7. Vaccination schemes
    2.8. Proliferation assay
    2.9. Cytokine quantification
    2.10. Extraction of antibodies from vagina
    2.11. Analysis of antibody response
    2.12. Virus and virus challenge
    2.13. Monitoring of infection
    2.14. Statistical analysis

    3.
    Results
    3.1. Influence of CpG ODN delivery before or after gD DNA vaccination on induction of acquired humoral immunity
    3.2. Impact of CpG ODN administration before or after gD DNA vaccination on induction of acquired cell-mediated immune response
    3.3. Effect of CpG ODN delivery before or after gD DNA vaccination on induction of protection against genital herpes infection and disease
    3.4. Mucosal administration of gD DNA vaccine followed by CpG ODN treatment failed to elicit protection against genital herpes infection



    Intranasal immunization with a proteoliposome-derived cochleate containing recombinant gD protein confers protective immunity against genital herpesnext term in mice
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    Judith Del Campoa, Madelene Lindqvistb, Maribel Cuelloa, Malin Bäckströmc, Osmir Cabrerraa, Josefine Perssonb, Oliver Pereza and Ali M. Harandib, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author

    a Department of Immunology, Finlay Institute, Havana, Cuba

    b Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

    c Department of Medical Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Mammalian Protein Expression core facility, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
    Received 18 September 2009;
    revised 10 November 2009;
    accepted 11 November 2009.
    Available online 27 November 2009.
    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of intranasal (IN) immunization with Neisseria meningitides B proteoliposome (AFPL1) and AFPL1-derived cochleate (AFCo1), containing glycoprotein D (gD) of previous termherpesnext term simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) for induction of protective immunity against previous termgenital herpesnext term infection in mice. We could show that IN immunization with both AFPL1 and AFCo1 containing gD induced gD-specific IgG antibody and lymphoproliferative responses. However, IFN-γ response could only be detected in CD4+ splenic cells and previous termgenitalnext term lymph node cells of the AFCo1gD immunized mice upon recall antigen stimulation in vitro. Importantly, IN immunization with AFCo1gD could elicit a complete protection against an otherwise lethal vaginal challenge with HSV-2, while the AFPL1gD immunized mice were only partially protected. Further, we could show that the IFN-γ response and protective immunity observed after IN immunization with AFCo1gD are mediated via the adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88. These data may have implications for the development of a mucosal vaccine against previous termgenital herpes.next term

    Keywords: previous termGenital herpesnext term; Sexually transmitted infections; Adjuvant; Toll like receptor; Mucosal immunity; Mucosal vaccine
    Article Outline

    1.
    Introduction

    2.
    Materials and methods
    2.1. Mice
    2.2. Preparation of proteoliposome
    2.3. Construction and expression of recombinant HSV-2 gD protein
    2.4. Incorporation of recombinant gD protein into AFPL1
    2.5. Preparation of AFCo1 with recombinant gD protein incorporated
    2.6. Immunization and sample collection
    2.7. Analysis of antibody response
    2.8. Proliferation assay
    2.9. IFN-γ assay
    2.10. Virus
    2.11. Vaginal HSV-2 challenge
    2.12. Vaginal viral replication
    2.13. Inflammation and disease
    2.14. Statistical analysis

    3.
    Results
    3.1. Intranasal immunization with AFPL1gD or AFCo1gD gives rise to gD-specific cell-mediated immunity
    3.2. Intranasal immunization with AFPL1gD or AFCo1gD confers protection against genital herpes
    3.3. The usage of the adaptor molecule MyD88 is critical to immune protection elicited by nasal immunization with AFCo1gD

    Advances in dermatology
    Update on the Treatment of Genital Herpesnext term

    Actualización en el Tratamiento del previous termHerpes Genitalnext term
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    J.M. MartínCorresponding Author Contact Information, a, E-mail The Corresponding Author, G. Villalóna and E. Jordáa

    a Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valencia, Spain
    Accepted 21 April 2008.
    Available online 30 January 2010.
    Abstract

    previous termGenital herpesnext term is a chronic infection characterized by periodic reactivation. It can produce symptomatic disease in the host although asymptomatic viral excretion can also occur. It is currently the main cause of previous termgenitalnext term ulceration and an important public health problem that has substantial clinical, psychological, and economic repercussions. This review analyzes the currently available therapeutic options and regimens, which are based mainly on systemic use of antiviral agents such as aciclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. In addition, special emphasis is placed on the prevention and management of this infection in specific situations, such as pregnant, pediatric, and immunocompromised patients.
    Resumen

    El previous termherpes genitalnext term es una infección crónica que se caracteriza por una reactivación periódica, con capacidad tanto de producir una enfermedad sintomática en el huésped como de excreción viral asintomática. Hoy en día constituye la primera causa de ulceración previous termgenitalnext term y representa un importante problema de salud pública, con considerables repercusiones clínicas, psicológicas y económicas.

    Se revisan y actualizan las distintas opciones y pautas terapéuticas disponibles en la actualidad, basadas fundamentalmente en el empleo por vía sistémica de los fármacos antivirales aciclovir, valaciclovir y famciclovir. Por otro lado, se pone especial énfasis en la prevención y el manejo de esta infección en situaciones particulares, como en embarazadas, en niños, o en pacientes inmunodeprimidos.

    Key words: previous termgenital herpesnext term; sexually transmitted disease; aciclovir; valac

    Palabras clave: previous termherpes genitalnext term; enfermedades de transmisión sexual; aciclovir; valaciclovir; famciclovir


    Genital herpesnext term and pregnancy — preventive measures
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    Henri Blanchiera, Jean-Marie HurauxCorresponding Author Contact Information, b, Christiane Huraux-Rendua and Annick Sainte-Croix le Baleurc

    a Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Créteil, 40 avenue de Verdun, 94010 Créteil Cedex, France

    b Laboratoire de Virologie du CERVI, Hôpital Pitié-Salpétrière, 83 boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75651 Paris Cedex 13, France

    c Département de Pharmacovigilance, Laboratoires Wellcome-France, 20 rue Rouget de Lisle, 92442 Issy-Les-Moulineaux Cedex, France
    Accepted 8 October 1993.
    Available online 16 May 2005.
    Abstract

    previous termGenital herpesnext term is particularly dangerous during pregnancy because of the risk of neonatal infection. This is discussed in four situations of previous termgenital herpesnext term associated with pregnancy. Choosing the most appropriate method of delivery, i.e. carrying the least risk of transmission from mother to baby, is based on our knowledge of the natural history of previous termgenital herpesnext term infection, the risk to the newborn (estimated from epidemiological studies), and, lastly, the possible preventive measures available.

    Keywords: previous termGenital herpesnext term; Pregnancy; Caesarean section; Acyclovir


    Recurrent genital herpesnext term in the guinea pig augmented by ultraviolet irradiation: Effects of treatment with acyclovir
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    Lawrence R. Stanberrya, Christopher J. Harrisona, Fernando J. Bravoa, Frances Childsa, Alisa L. Reecea and David I. Bernsteina

    aDivision of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, U.S.A.
    Received 13 November 1989;
    accepted 30 January 1990.
    Available online 11 December 2002.
    Abstract

    The guinea pig model of previous termgenital herpesnext term simplex virus infection has proven useful in the evaluation of antiviral drugs. We have recently demonstrated that recurrent herpetic infections can be induced in latently infected guinea pigs by ultraviolet irradiation. In this report we have examined the effect of acyclovir on ultraviolet radiation-induced recurrent previous termgenital herpes.next term Prophylactic topical acyclovir decreased the severity but not the incidence of ultraviolet radiation-induced recurrences while intraperitoneal acyclovir initiated before ultraviolet irradiation reduced both the incidence and severity of induced recurrences. When treatment was begun after ultraviolet exposure, neither topical nor intraperitoneal acyclovir were effective in reducing the incidence or severity of induced recurrent disease. The effectiveness of acyclovir in the control of induced recurrent previous termgenitalnext term infections in the guinea pig is similar to what has been observed in human trials. This model of ultraviolet radiation-induced recurrent previous termherpesnext term simplex virus infection should prove useful in the evaluation on new putative antiviral drugs.

    Keywords: Acyclovir; Recurrent previous termgenital herpes; Herpesnext term simplex virus; Guinea pig model
    Abstract

    Virend® (SP-303), a new topical antiviral agent with activity against herpesvirus, was evaluated in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II study for safety and effectiveness against recurrent previous termgenital herpesnext term lesions in patients with AIDS. The primary endpoints of this study were complete healing of lesions and time to healing. Patients had a history of recurrent previous termgenitalnext term or anogenital previous termherpesnext term with at least one lesion and positive HSV culture at enrollment. Participants received Virend® (15% ointment; 24 patients) or matching placebo (21 patients) three times a day for 21 days. Excluding two patients in the Virend® group who received an initial treatment but were lost to follow-up, 9 of 22 (41%) patients treated with Virend® experienced complete healing of their lesions compared with three (14%) patients in the placebo group (P = 0.053). Viral culture revealed that 50% of Virend®-treated patients and 19% of placebo-treated patients became culture-negative during treatment (P = 0.06). Based on these preliminary clinical findings, further evaluation of Virend® for topical treatment of previous termgenital herpesnext term in patients with AIDS is planned.

    Author Keywords: Virend®; SP-303; Antiviral; previous termGenital herpesnext term; AIDS
    Article Outline
    CpG oligodeoxynucleotide augments HSV-2 glycoprotein D DNA vaccine efficacy to generate T helper 1 response and subsequent protection against primary genital herpesnext term infection in mice
    Purchase
    $ 31.50

    Sara Tengvall, Agnetha Josefsson, Jan Holmgren and Ali M. HarandiCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author

    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Göteborg University Vaccine Research Institute (GUVAX), Göteborg University, Medicinaregatan 7A, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden
    Received 9 February 2005;
    revised 25 May 2005;
    accepted 3 June 2005.
    Available online 17 October 2005.
    Abstract

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a combined use of DNA vaccine of HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD DNA) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) in comparison to gD DNA vaccine alone in inducing immunity against previous termgenitalnext term HSV-2 infection. Intramuscular vaccination of C57Bl/6 mice with gD DNA followed 48 h later by CpG ODN administration conferred a strong immunity against previous termgenital herpesnext term infection. This was concomitant with development of a robust specific IgG2c (an indicator of Th1-type response in C57Bl/6 mice) antibody response as well as IFN-γ production by previous termgenitalnext term lymph node and spleen cells in vitro. Administration of CpG ODN prior to gD DNA immunization, on the other hand, was inferior to immunization with gD DNA alone in providing protection against macroscopic signs of the disease. Consistent with the in vivo protection data, mice immunized with CpG ODN followed by gD DNA vaccine showed decreased specific lymphoproliferative and IFN-γ responses compared to gD DNA vaccinated mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that timely administration of CpG ODN augments the immunity elicited by gD DNA vaccine, resulting in augmented Th1-type immunity against previous termgenital herpesnext term infection in mice. These findings emphasize the value of using CpG ODN in a DNA vaccination scheme against previous termgenital herpesnext term and merit also further evaluation in genetic vaccination approaches against other sexually transmitted infections.

    Keywords: previous termGenital herpesnext term; HSV; DNA vaccine; CpG
    [/size]

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الخميس ديسمبر 14, 2017 6:23 am