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    Hepatitis C

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    تاريخ التسجيل : 22/03/2010
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    Hepatitis C

    مُساهمة من طرف admin في الجمعة مايو 20, 2011 5:29 pm

    1-Original report
    Risk factors for hepatitis Cnext term virus infection among nonintravenous-drug-using heterosexuals attending a clinic for sexually previous termtransmitted diseasenext term in Italy*1

    Rosamaria Corona MD*, Corresponding Author Contact Information, Federico Caprilli MD†, Maria Elenatosti BSc‡, Giulio Gentili MD†, Elisabetta Franco MD§, Laura Zaratti BSc§, Guido Palamara MD†, Amalia Giglio MD†, Grazia Prignano BSc†, Tommaso Stroffolini MD‡, Paolo Pasquini MD‡, Maria Grazia Rastelli MD¶ and Alfonso Mele MD‡

    * Servizio di Epidemiologia, Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata (IDIIRCCS), Università degli Studi Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

    † Istituto Ospedaliero Dermosifilopatico di S.Maria e S.Gallicano, Università degli Studi Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

    ‡ Laboratorio di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Università degli Studi Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

    § Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica, Università degli Studi Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

    ¶ Azienda Sanitaria, Livorno, Italy
    Received 10 March 1997;
    accepted 10 June 1997. ;
    Available online 3 February 2004.

    Abstract

    Objective: To evaluate prevalence of and risk factors for previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus (HCV) infection and the role of genital ulcer previous termdiseasenext term in the previous termsexualnext term transmission of HCV among 1280 nonintravenous-drug-using heterosexuals attending a sexually previous termtransmitted diseasenext term clinic.

    Methods: Serum samples were tested by a third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Reactive sera were confirmed using a RIBA assay. The independent effect of different variables on the likelihood to be anti-HCV positive was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis.

    Results: The overall anti-HCV prevalence was 4.9%, a rate nearly ten times as high as the 0.5% recently found in a national sample of young male adults 18 to 26 years old. The prevalence was 9.6% in subjects with positive syphilis serology and 3.8% in those without a history of sexually previous termtransmitted disease.next term Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age greater than 34 years (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.1–7.6), low educational level (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1–3.5), positive syphilis serology (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.04–4.1), and anti-HIV positivity (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2–18.7) were all independent predictors of HCV infection.

    Conclusions: These findings are consistent with previous termsexualnext term transmission of HCV Syphilis infection may be a cofactor in HCV transmission or, alternatively, may be a strong indicator of high-risk previous termsexualnext term behavior.

    Author Keywords: previous termhepatitis Cnext term; heterosexuals; previous termsexualnext term transmission
    References

    1. R. Corona, G. Prignano, A. Mele et al., Heterosexual and homosexual transmission of previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus: relation with previous termhepatitisnext term B virus and immunodeficiency virus type 1. Epidemiol Infect 107 (1991), pp. 667–672. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (24)

    2. K. Nakashima, S. Kashiwagi, J. Hayashi et al., previous termSexualnext term transmission of previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus among female prostitutes and patients with sexually previous termtransmitted diseasesnext term in Fukuoka, Kyushu, Japan. Am J Epidemiol 136 (1992), pp. 1132–1137. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (51)

    3. D.L. Thomas, R.O. Cannon, C.N. Shapiro, E.W. Hook, M.J. Alter and T.C. Quin, previous termHepatitis C, hepatitisnext term B, and human immunodeficiency virus infections among nonintravenous-drug-using patients attending clinics for sexually previous termtransmitted diseases.next term J Infect Dis 169 (1994), pp. 990–995. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (100)

    4. R.S. Tedder, R.J.C. Gilson, M. Briggs et al., previous termHepatitis Cnext term virus: evidence for previous termsexualnext term transmission. BMJ 302 (1991), pp. 1299–1302. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (74)

    5. D.H. Osmond, E. Charlebois, H.W. Sheppard et al., Comparison of risk factors for previous termhepatitis C and hepatitisnext term B virus infections in homosexual men. J Infect Dis 167 (1993), pp. 66–71. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (93)

    6. Y. Akahane, M. Kojima, Y. Sugai et al., previous termHepatitis Cnext term virus in spouses of patients with type previous termCnext term chronic liver previous termdisease.next term Ann Intern Med 120 (1994;), pp. 748–752. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (139)

    7. M.E. Eyster, H.J. Alter, L.M. Aledort, S. Quan, A. Hatzakis and J. Goedert, Heterosexual co-transmission of previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Ann Intern Med 115 (1991), pp. 764–768. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (200)

    8. D. Bresters, E.P. Mauser-Bunschoten, H.W. Reesink et al., previous termSexualnext term transmission of previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus. Lancet 342 (1993), pp. 210–211. Abstract | Article | PDF (327 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (132)

    9. M.J. Alter, P.L. Coleman, W.J. Alexander et al., Importance of heterosexual activity in the transmission of previous termhepatitisnext term B and non-A, non-B previous termhepatitis.next term JAMA 262 (1989), pp. 1201–1205. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (171)

    10. A. Mele, L. Sagliocca, G. Manzillo et al., Risk factors for acute non-A, non-B previous termhepatitisnext term and their relationship to antibodies for previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus: a case control study. Am J Public Health 84 (1994), pp. 1640–1643. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (36)

    11. L.S. Rosenblum, S.C. Hadler, K.G. Castro, S. LiebBelle Glade Study Group and H.W. Jaffe, Heterosexual transmission of previous termhepatitisnext term B virus in Belle Glade, Florida. J Infect Dis 161 (1990;), pp. 407–411. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (16)

    12. R. Corona, F. Caprilli, A. Giglio et al., Risk factors for previous termhepatitisnext term B virus infection among heterosexuals attending a sexually previous termtransmitted diseasenext term clinic in Italy: role of genital ulcerative previous termdiseases.next term J Med Virol 48 (1996), pp. 262–266. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (9)

    13. (2nd Ed ed.),BMDP: Statistical Software Manual, University of California Press, Berkeley (1990), pp. 1047–1076.

    14. R. D'Ameho, T. Stroffolini, P.M. Matricardi et al., Low prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among Italian Air Force recruits. Scand J Infect Dis 27 (1995), pp. 12–14.

    15. G.M. McQuillan, T.R. Townsend, H.A. Fields, M. Carrol, M. Leahy and B.E. Polk, Seroepidemiology of previous termhepatitisnext term B virus infection in the United States. 1976 to 1980. Am J Med 87 (1989), pp. 5S–10S.

    16. M.J. Alter, J. Ahtone, I. Weisfuse, K. Starko, T.D. Vacalis and J.E. Maynard, previous termHepatitisnext term B virus transmission between heterosexuals. JAMA 256 (1986), pp. 1307–1310. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (31)

    17. H.S. Weinstock, G. Bolan, A.R. Reingold and L.B. Polish, previous termHepatitis Cnext term infection among patients attending a clinic for sexually previous termtransmitted diseases.next term JAMA 269 (1993), pp. 392–394. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (75)

    18. D.L. Thomas, J.M. Zenilman, H.J. Alter et al., previous termSexualnext term transmission of previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus among patients attending sexually previous termtransmitted diseasesnext term clinics in Baltimore: an analysis of 309 sex partnerships. J Infect Dis 171 (1995), pp. 768–775. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (192)

    Corresponding Author Contact InformationCorresponding author. Address correspondence to Dr. Rosamaria Corona, Servizio di Epidemiologia, Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata (IDI-IRCCS), Via Monti di Creta 104, 00167 , Rome, , Italy.

    *1 Supported by the V-VI-VII ProjectAIDS (1992–1994) of the Italian Ministry of Health.
    2-Short communication
    Transmission of hepatitis Cnext term virus among sexually previous termtransmitted diseasenext term high risk groups

    Toshihiko IijimaCorresponding Author Contact Information, a, Kazuhiro Kanekoa, Kyouhei Komachiyaa, Masaji Nambua and Hiromitsu Kumadab

    aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan

    bDepartment of Gastroenterology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
    Received 19 April 1993;
    accepted 22 June 1993.
    Available online 21 October 2005.

    Abstract

    Recently, the modes of transmission of previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus (HCV), other than by blood transfusion, have been discussed. We investigated the possibility of the previous termsexualnext term transmission of HCV among sexually previous termtransmitted diseasesnext term (STD) in high-risk groups. Anti-HCV was examined for 203 female prostitutes (group STD) and, as controls, 270 nurses (group N) and 628 pregnant women (group P). Anti-HCV positive rates for the STD group (3.9646) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the N group (0.74%) and the P group (0.95%). All of the six HCV-RNA-positive subjects in the STD group had high values of HCV-RNA over 104.5 copies/μd. Among the four previous termsexualnext term partners examined for HCV-RNA, three partners (75%) were HCV-RNA positive. The HCV genotype of the six subjects in the three couples all matched type 11. The results of the present study indicate that previous termsexualnext term contact is a possible route of HCV transmission, other than by blood transfusion.

    Keywords: previous termHepatitis Cnext term virus; Mode of transmission; Sexually previous termtransmitted diseasesnext term
    3-

    Differential seroprevalences of hepatitis Cnext term virus, previous termhepatitisnext term B virus and human immunodeficiency virus among intravenous drug users, commercial sex workers and patients with sexually previous termtransmitted diseasesnext term in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Kazuhisa TaketaCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, a, Satoru Ikedaa, Narufumi Suganumaa, Kannika Phornphutkulb, Supatra Peerakomec, Kriegsak Sitvacharanumd and Jaroon Jittiwutikarne

    a Department of Public Health, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan

    b Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

    previous termcnext term Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

    d Chiang Mai STD Clinic, Chiang Mai, Thailand

    e Northern Drug Dependence Treatment Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand
    Received 24 June 2002;
    revised 16 January 2003;
    accepted 28 February 2003. ;
    Available online 25 April 2003.

    Abstract

    To elucidate the differences in the mode of transmission of three blood-borne viruses, previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus (HCV), previous termhepatitisnext term B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), under comparable conditions of study, we analyzed the prevalences of anti-HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), anti-HBV core antibodies (anti-HBc), HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HIV antibodies (anti-HIV) in different risk populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand, where the prevalence of HIV infection is high. The subjects consisted of 98 intravenous drug users (IVDU), 100 commercial sex workers (CSW) and 50 male patients with sexually previous termtransmitted diseasesnext term (STD). In IVDU the prevalence of anti-HCV was the highest (85%), followed by anti-HBc (77%) and anti-HIV (46%), whereas in CSW and STD the prevalence of anti-HCV was 2 and 0%, respectively, that of anti-HBc 69 and 64%, respectively, and that of anti-HIV 11 and 14%, respectively. The prevalence of anti-HBc minus that of HBsAg, representing horizontal transmission of HBV, was similar for IVDU (63%), CSW (58%) and STD (64%). Thus, HCV is mainly previous termtransmittednext term by blood contact, HIV primarily by blood contact rather than by previous termsexualnext term contact, and HBV equally readily by blood or previous termsexualnext term contact. These findings were supported by the results of logistic regression analysis.

    Author Keywords: Seroprevalence; previous termHepatitis Cnext term virus; Human immunodeficiency virus; previous termHepatitisnext term B virus; Intravenous drug users; Commercial sex workers; Sexually previous termtransmitted diseasesnext term
    5-Case report
    A case of sexually transmittednext term acute previous termhepatitis C:next term confirmation by analysis of viral genome

    Fumihiko Kominea, Corresponding Author Contact Information, Toshikazu Yamaguchia, Mitsuhiko Moriyamaa, Takashi Segawaa, Hiroshi Matsumuraa, Kazuhiko Nakaia, Toshihiro Shimizua, Nakanobu Hayashia, Yasuyuki Arakawaa, Toshikazu Uchidab, Katsunori Takeuchic and Masahide Miyagawac

    a Third Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchikami-machi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173, Japan

    b First Department of Pathology, Nihon University, Tokyo, Japan

    previous termcnext term Department of Internal Medicine, Yokohama Central Social Insurance Hospital, Yokohama, Japan
    Received 8 June 1998;
    revised 13 October 1998;
    accepted 30 October 1998.
    Available online 1 March 1999.

    Abstract

    We report a case of acute previous termhepatitis Cnext term that appears to have been sexually previous termtransmitted.next term The patient was a 21-year-old female with no history of blood transfusion and no personal or family history related to hepatic decease. The patient first had previous termsexualnext term intercourse with her male partner in November 1994 and she visited our hospital with a chief complaint of general weakness in March 1995. She was admitted because of abnormal liver function test results (ALT 329; AST 152 IU l−1). She was negative for serum second-generation anti-previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus (HCV) antibody, anti-previous termhepatitisnext term A IgM antibody, anti-previous termhepatitisnext term B core IgM antibody, anti-Epstein–Barr virus IgM antibody, anti-nuclear antibody, anti-DNA antibody and anti-mitochondrial antibody at admission. A serum HCV RNA test gave a positive result on the 7th day after admission; her HCV RNA level was 103.5 copies 50 μl−1 serum on the 21st day. Her anti-HCV antibody status became positive on the 30th day after admission. A liver needle biopsy specimen taken on the 35th day showed well-preserved lobular architecture and mild necroinflammation within the parenchyma without accompanying fibrosis. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography did not show significant change in the liver or spleen. Taking the above findings together a diagnosis of acute previous termhepatitis Cnext term was maden. Treatment by interferon-β succeeded in eradicating the HCV and the patient was free of HCV RNA 1 year later. The patients partner had untreated chronic previous termhepatitis C.next term The HCVs isolated from the patient and her partner both had the 2b genotype and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis revealed three virtually identical bands. The nucleotide sequences (E1-E2/NS1 region) of the two HCVs showed 98% homology. These genetic findings suggest that the previous termsexualnext term transmission of HCV occurred in this case.

    Author Keywords: Acute previous termhepatitis; Hepatitis Cnext term virus (HCV); Sexually previous termtransmitted diseasenext term; Interferon-β
    Article Outline
    6-Original Article
    Seroprevalence of Viral Hepatitisnext term and Sexually previous termTransmitted Diseasenext term Among Adults with Recently Diagnosed HIV Infection in Southern Taiwan, 2000–2005: Upsurge in previous termHepatitis Cnext term Virus Infections Among Injection Drug Users
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    Hsin-Chun Leea, b, Nai-Ying Koc, Nan-Yao Leeb, Chia-Ming Changb and Wen-Chien Koa, b, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author

    aDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

    bDepartment of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan

    cDepartment of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
    Received 15 November 2007;
    revised 22 January 2008;
    accepted 12 February 2008.
    Available online 1 October 2008.

    Background/Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to compare the seroprevalence of viral previous termhepatitisnext term and sexually previous termtransmitted diseasenext term (STD) co-infections among three populations at risk recently diagnosed with HIV infection.
    Methods

    A retrospective review of medical records was performed to determine the prevalence of several co-infections among adults recently diagnosed with HIV infection between 2000 and 2005 at National Cheng Kung University Hospital in Tainan, Taiwan.
    Results

    Among a total of 484 adults, 124 (25.6%) were men having sex with men (MSM), 105 (21.7%) were heterosexual adults, and 255 (52.7%) were injection drug users (IDUs). The case number of adults with recently diagnosed HIV infection increased annually, from 27 in 2000 to 142 in 2005 (p < 0.001). This trend appeared to be attributable to the upsurge in HIV infection among IDUs beginning in 2003. At the time of HIV diagnosis, mean CD4+ counts were significantly higher and plasma HIV-1 RNA loads were lower in the IDU group than the MSM or heterosexual groups. The previous termhepatitisnext term B virus (HBV) carrier rate was similar in all three groups, with an average rate of 16.5%. The prevalence of treponemal antibody and Entamoeba histolytica indirect hemagglutination antibody was higher in MSM (37.5% and 9.4%, respectively) than in heterosexuals (19.6% and 7.3%, respectively) or IDUs (3.2% and 2.1%). The seroprevalence of previous termhepatitisnext term A virus infection increased with age, with 94.2% (97/103) of patients who were older than 40 years. previous termHepatitis Cnext term virus (HCV) or HBV-HCV co-infections were noted more often in IDUs (97.9% and 16.9%, respectively) than in heterosexuals (10.9% and 2.2%, respectively) and MSM (5.3% and 3.6%, respectively).
    Conclusion

    There was a recent upsurge in HIV-HCV co-infected IDUs in southern Taiwan. A higher rate of co-infection with STDs among HIV-infected MSM highlights the need for integrated STD control efforts in current HIV prevention programs.

    Key Words: human immunodeficiency virus; sexually previous termtransmitted diseasesnext term; transmission routes; viral previous termhepatitisnext term
    7-

    Hepatitisnext term B and previous termCnext term infections, human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually previous termtransmittednext term infections among women of childbearing age in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa
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    Patrice Combe a, Guy La Ruche b, Dominique Bonard a, Timothée Ouassa a, Hortense Faye-Ketté d, Fatoumata Sylla-Koko a, François Dabis c, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author and The DYSCER-CI Study Group

    a Centre de Diagnostic et de Recherche sur le SIDA, PACCI, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Treichville, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    b National AIDS Control Programme, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    previous termcnext term Unité INSERM 330, Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux, France

    d Institut Pasteur de Cocody, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
    Received 8 January 2001;
    Revised 4 April 2001;
    accepted 9 May 2001.
    Available online 16 March 2004.

    Abstract

    Few studies have been conducted in developing countries to estimate the prevalence of previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus (HCV) infection and its association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually previous termtransmitted diseasesnext term (STDs). We have screened for previous termhepatitisnext term B virus (HBV) and HCV markers 200 HIV-1-positive, 23 HIV-2-positive and 206 HIV-negative women attending gynaecology clinics in 1995/96 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, a sample selected among 2198 consecutive consultants. Taking into account the prevalence of 21·7% for HIV in this population, the overall prevalence of anti-HBV core antibody was 81·6%, that for previous termhepatitisnext term B surface antigen was 9·9% and for HCV antibody was 3·3%. HIV infection and other STDs were not associated with HBV or HCV markers. Moreover, HBV and HCV markers were not statistically associated. Our results confirm the high prevalence of HIV in Abidjan and the endemic situation of HBV infection. Furthermore, HCV infection is not infrequent in this developing country setting, not explained by previous termsexualnext term transmission.

    Author Keywords: Author Keywords: previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus; previous termhepatitisnext term B virus; sexually previous termtransmitted diseasenext term; human immunodeficiency virus; women; Africa
    Article Outline
    8-Sexualnext term Transmission of previous termHepatitis Cnext term and Early Intervention
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    Shona Fletcher RN, BSNa, Registered nurse

    aIan Charleson Centre at Royal Free Hospital in London

    Available online 10 September 2005.

    The major risk factors for the transmission of previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus (HCV) have been sharing needles for intravenous drug use (IDU) and receiving blood and blood products; however, recent findings suggest that HCV is being increasingly sexually previous termtransmitted,next term particularly among HIV-positive men who engage in high-risk, unprotected previous termsexualnext term behaviors with other men. Sixteen HIV-positive patients were diagnosed with sexually acquired HCV infection at a leading London HIV outpatient treatment center during 2002. All 16 patients were homosexual males with no history of IDU who had been involved in high-risk, unprotected previous termsexualnext term behaviors, which included active and passive anal intercourse, fisting, rimming, and oral sex. Six patients (37.5%) in the cohort spontaneously cleared HCV infection and consequently tested negative for HCV RNA. The remaining 10 patients were all started on HCV treatment, which consisted of pegylated interferon alpha-2b in combination with ribavirin. Three patients (43%) have achieved a significant reduction in HCV RNA after 12 to 24 weeks of HCV treatment. The earlier HCV seroconversion is detected and treated, the better the chance of achieving viral eradication.

    Key words: HIV; previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus (HCV); coinfection; previous termsexualnext term transmission; combination therapy
    Article Outline

    Epidemiology
    8- Cited By in Scopus (0)
    Permissions & Reprints
    Original article
    Hepatitis Cnext term virus: molecular and epidemiological evidence of male-to-female transmission
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    Norma de Paula Cavalheiro1, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Abel de la Rosa2, Slava Elagin3, Fatima Mitiko Tengan4 and Antonio Alci Barone5

    1 PhD – Researcher at previous termHepatitisnext term Laboratory, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo

    2 PhD, Senior Vice President, Pharmasset Inc. Atlanta, GA, USA

    3 PhD, Vice President Research and Development Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH, USA

    4 PhD – Professor of previous termHepatitisnext term Laboratory, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo

    5 Professor – Professor of the Infectious previous termDiseasesnext term Department, Medical School, Universidade de São Paulo
    Received 28 March 2010;
    accepted 30 March 2010.
    Available online 15 December 2010.

    Abstract
    Introduction

    There is general consensus that previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus is efficiently previous termtransmittednext term by the parenteral route, whereas data on viral transmission by previous termsexualnext term or non-previous termsexualnext term intrafamilial contact are conflicting.
    Objective and Method

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transmission of previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus in nine heterosexual couples.
    Result

    The mean age of the couples was 43.7 years. When interviewed, all of the women denied the presence of risk factors for acquisition of the infection, whereas the cause of infection in the nine husbands could be attributed to blood transfusions in two of them (22.2%), use of intravenous and inhaled drugs in six (66.7%), acupuncture in one (11.1%), and tattooing in one (11.1%). All men and none of the women reported previous termsexualnext term relations with sex professionals. The mean homology score (Non Structural 5b-previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus) was 98.4%. Among the nine couples with matching subtypes, one (11.1%) was infected with subtype 1a, three (33.3%) with subtype 1b, and five (55.5%) with subtype 3a. Shared personal hygiene items showed a much higher correlation with the possible route of transmission and were better supported by the sequence homology data than the other associated risk factors. Three (33.3%) couples shared toothbrushes, seven (77.8%) shared razor blades, eight (88.8%) shared nail clippers, and six (66.7%) shared manicure cutters.
    Conclusion

    Sharing of personal hygiene items was a confounding factor in the discussion of previous termsexual hepatitis Cnext term virus transmission and the hypothesis of male-to-female transmission was supported in this study.

    Keywords: sexually previous termtransmitted diseasesnext term; phylogeny; previous termhepatitis Cnext term
    9-Hepatitis C:next term a sexually previous termtransmitted disease?next term

    John B. Gross M.D., F.A.C.G.a

    a Division of Gastroenterology/Hepatology Mayo Clinic and Foundation Rochester, Minnesota USA
    Received 19 July 2001;
    accepted 16 August 2001.
    Available online 7 November 2001.


    Refers to: Hepatitis C virus infection in spouses: sexual transmission or common exposure to the same risk factors?
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 96, Issue 11, November 2001, Pages 3138-3141,
    Tommaso Stroffolini, Umberto Lorenzoni, Francesca Menniti-Ippolito, Domenico Infantolino, Maria Chiaramonte

    Referred to by: Re: J. Gross editorial—“Hepatitis C: a sexually transmitted disease?”
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 97, Issue 5, May 2002, Page 1256,
    C. D. Mazoff
    10-

    Sexualnext term transmission of previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus
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    Rune WejstålCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author

    Institute of Internal Medicine, Department of Infectious previous termDiseases,next term Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Göteborg, Sweden

    Available online 3 August 2002.

    Abstract

    previous termSexualnext term transmission of previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus (HCV) occurs; however, to what extent is still unclear. In this presentation relevant data from the literature concerning the following key issues will be presented: presence of HCV in the seminal fluid and vaginal secretions; presence of HCV infection in sexually promiscuous individuals; presence of HCV infection among previous termsexualnext term partners to HCV-infected individuals; and molecular biology evidence of previous termsexualnext term transmission.

    An anti-HCV prevalence of 2–12% is seen in sexually promiscuous individuals, which is higher than that usually seen among blood donors. In case-control studies, HCV infection is associated with previous termsexualnext term promiscuity and sex with a partner who has a past history of previous termhepatitis.next term In most studies, HCV infection is common among previous termsexualnext term partners of HCV-infected subjects. Genotyping and genome sequencing provide further evidence for intraspousal transmission of HCV.

    Despite these findings, stable previous termsexualnext term partners of hemophiliacs or recipients of HCV-contaminated immunoglobulin preparations rarely become infected. These discrepancies are not fully understood. Other previous termsexualnext term behaviours or confounding non-previous termsexualnext term transmission routes could play a part.

    Author Keywords: HCV; previous termSexualnext term transmission
    11-Original articles
    Prevalence of hepatitis Cnext term virus infection in urban childrenstar, open
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    Samer S. El-Kamary MD, MPHCorresponding Author Contact Information, a, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Janet R. Serwint MDa, Alain Joffe MD, MPHa, Mathuram Santosham MD, MPHa and Anne K. Duggan ScDa

    aFrom the Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Received 23 September 2002;
    revised 28 February 2003;
    accepted 6 May 2003.
    Available online 6 August 2003.

    Abstract

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of previous termhepatitis Cnext term virus (HCV) infection in children with an unknown or negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status attending an urban hospital pediatric primary care clinic, and to identify HCV risk factors in their mothers.

    Study design This was a cross-sectional study of 1034 children tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) after excluding children known to be HIV-positive. We assessed maternal HCV risk factors through structured interviews with a sample of mothers (n = 573) and through review of available medical records (n = 347) for a subsample of mother-child pairs. Means, proportions, and 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the prevalence of anti-HCV and maternal risk factors.

    Results One child (0.1%; 95% CI, 0.002, 0.5) was anti-HCV positive. History of blood transfusion was reported by 7% of mothers and intravenous drug use (IVDU) by 1.8%. A subsample of mothers significantly underreported IVDU when compared with medical record review (1.5% vs 7.8%, P<.001).

    Conclusions Our findings suggest that universal screening of children for HCV in high-risk urban communities is not warranted. However, self-report may not be reliable for identifying mothers with a history of IVDU, for whom HCV testing is recommended.

    Abbreviations: anti-HCV, previous termHepatitis Cnext term virus antibody; CDC, Centers for previous termDiseasenext term Control and Prevention; HCV, previous termHepatitis Cnext term virus; HIV, Human immunodeficiency virus; IVDU, Intravenous drug use; STDs, Sexually previous termtransmitted diseasenext term

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