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    HIV/AIDS مرض الايدز

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    المساهمات : 2529
    تاريخ التسجيل : 22/03/2010
    العمر : 56
    الموقع : O.KATTAB@YAHOO.COM

    HIV/AIDS مرض الايدز

    مُساهمة من طرف admin في الأربعاء يونيو 22, 2011 6:46 pm

    1-

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIDS


    Available online 8 February 2011.



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    Abstract

    This national
    study of community-based addiction-treatment organizations’ (CBOs)
    implementation of evidence-based practices explored CBO Program
    Directors’ (n = 296) and clinical staff (n = 518)
    attitudes about the usefulness of science-based addiction treatment.
    Through multivariable regression modeling, the study identified that
    identical factors were associated with directors, and staff attitudes
    about the usefulness of science-based addiction treatment. For both
    directors and staff working in an organization that was affiliated with a
    research institution, working in an organization with better internet
    technology (measured through TCU-ORC scores) and having higher levels of
    education were all significantly associated with having more positive
    attitudes regarding science-based addiction treatment. Implications:
    government policy that promotes the hiring of addiction treatment
    clinical staff with professional degrees and encourages the development
    of linkages between addiction treatment researchers and treatment staff
    may positively impact attitudes and use of evidence-based addiction
    treatment practices (EBPs) in CBOs.




    Keywords: Evidence-based practice; Addiction
    treatment; Substance abuse; Attitudes toward evidence-based practice;
    TCU-ORC
    The Substance Abuse Mental
    Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling
    as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in
    substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes
    the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following
    participation in a clinical trial, the agency implemented an HIV testing
    and counseling program. During the trial, a post-trial pilot, and early
    implementation the agency identified challenges and developed
    strategies to overcome barriers to adoption of the intervention. Their
    experience may be instructive for other treatment providers seeking to
    implement an HIV testing program. Lessons learned encompassed the
    observed acceptability of testing and counseling to clients, the
    importance of a “champion” and staff buy-in, the necessity of multiple
    levels of community and agency support and collaboration, the ability to
    streamline staff training, the need for a clear chain of command, the
    need to develop program specific strategies, and the requirement for
    sufficient funding. An examination of costs indicated that some staff
    time may not be adequately reimbursed by funding sources for activities
    such as adapting the intervention, start-up training, ongoing
    supervision and quality assurance, and overhead costs.



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    Abstract

    In this paper, we
    study a heroin epidemic model with distributed time delays. The basic
    reproduction number [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
    for the model is identified and the threshold property of [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
    is established. It is shown that drug-free equilibrium is globally
    asymptotically stable if [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط].
    When [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط],
    there is a disease endemic equilibrium which is locally asymptotically
    stable, it is proved that the disease is uniformly persistent in the
    population, and explicit formulae are obtained by which the eventual
    lower bound of the drug user individuals can be computed.We
    consider a mathematical model for HIV/AIDS that incorporates staged
    progression and amelioration. Amelioration as a result of HAART
    treatment is allowed to occur across any number of stages. The global
    dynamics are completely determined by the basic reproduction number [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]. If [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], then the disease-free equilibrium
    (DFE) is globally asymptotically stable and the disease always dies out.
    If [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط], DFE is unstable and a unique
    endemic equilibrium (EE) is globally asymptotically stable, and the
    disease persists at the endemic equilibrium. The proof of global
    stability utilizes a global Lyapunov function.

    Keywords: Staged progression; HIV/AIDS;
    Amelioration; Basic reproduction number; Global stability; Lyapunov
    functions




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    Abstract

    Objectives

    This study compares the effectiveness of two types
    of interventions with no intervention on the prevention of needle stick
    injuries (NSIs).Methods

    Health
    care workers, who were at risk for NSIs, were eligible for this
    three-armed cluster randomized controlled trial. In total, 23 hospital
    wards were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 intervention groups, which were
    given either a needle safety device and a workshop (NW; 7 wards, n = 267)
    or a workshop only (W; 8 wards, n = 263), or to a control group
    (C; 8 wards, n = 266). The primary outcome was the half-year
    incidence of NSIs, which was measured through questionnaires and
    official notification at the occupational health service at baseline
    (T0), 6 months (T1) and 12 months (T2) after baseline. Analysis were
    done by intention to treat. This study is registered as a prospective
    randomized trial, number NTR1207.Results

    A statistically significant difference was found
    between the groups for the half-year incidence of NSIs (p = 0.046)
    on the basis of questionnaire data with ORs for reported NSIs for the
    NW group compared with the control group of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.13–0.91) and
    0.45 (95% CI: 0.19–1.06) for the W group compared with the control
    group. The officially registered NSIs during the study period showed no
    statistical differences between the groups.Conclusions

    The combined intervention of the introduction of
    needle safety devices and an interactive workshop led to the highest
    reduction in the number of self-reported NSIs compared to a workshop
    alone or no intervention.



    Loader.rt("abs_end");This paper presents an
    epidemic model aiming at the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Yunnan, China.
    The total population in the model is restricted within high risk
    population. By the epidemic characteristics of HIV/AIDS in Yunnan
    province, the population is divided into two groups: injecting drug
    users (IDUs) and people engaged in commercial sex (PECS) which includes
    female sex workers (FSWs), and clients of female sex workers (C). For a
    better understanding of HIV/AIDS transmission dynamics, we do some
    necessary mathematical analysis. The conditions and thresholds for the
    existence of four equilibria are established. We compute the
    reproduction number for each group independently, and show that when
    both the reproduction numbers are less than unity, the disease-free
    equilibrium is globally stable. The local stabilities for other
    equilibria including two boundary equilibria and one positive
    equilibrium are figured out. When we omit the infectivity of AIDS
    patients, global stability of these equilibria are obtained. For the
    simulation, parameters are chosen to fit as much as possible prevalence
    data publicly available for Yunnan. Increasing strength of the control
    measure on high risk population is necessary to reduce the HIV/AIDS in
    Yunnan.
    In recent
    years, bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics, leading to a
    decline in the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating infectious
    diseases. A mathematical model for multi-strain tuberculosis
    transmission dynamics to assess the burden of drug-sensitive,
    multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is
    formulated and analyzed. Each single strain submodel is shown to exhibit
    backward bifurcation when the threshold parameter is less than unity.
    Both analytical and numerical results show that resistance to drugs
    increase with increase in drug use, that is, active tuberculosis
    treatment results in a reduction of drug sensitive and increase in
    multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Furthermore, use of second line drugs
    results in a decrease of the multidrug-resistant and increase of
    extensively drug resistant tuberculosis as most cases of multidrug
    resistant tuberculosis occur as a result of inappropriate, misuse or
    mismanaged treatment. Both the analytic results and numerical
    simulations suggest that quarantine of extensively drug resistant TB
    cases in addition to treatment of other forms of TB may be able to
    reduce the spread of the epidemic in poor resource-settings.

    Keywords: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis;
    Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis; First line tuberculosis drugs;
    Second line tuberculosis drugs

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الخميس ديسمبر 14, 2017 6:24 am