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    بحث//Abestract/HEPATITIS B

    شاطر

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    المساهمات : 2529
    تاريخ التسجيل : 22/03/2010
    العمر : 56
    الموقع : O.KATTAB@YAHOO.COM

    بحث//Abestract/HEPATITIS B

    مُساهمة من طرف admin في الأحد يوليو 10, 2011 6:36 pm

    1-
    Keywords:


    • hepatitis;
    • HBV;
    • liver fibrosis;
    • cirrhosis;
    • normal ALT;
    • normal transaminases


    Abstract

    The
    indication for antiviral treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B
    is based on serum HBV DNA levels, transaminases, and histological grade
    and stage. The relation of liver fibrosis and inflammation to ALT
    activity in chronic hepatitis B infection was investigated in a
    non-endemic, European setting. A total of 253 patients with chronic
    hepatitis B who had undergone liver biopsy at the Clinic of
    Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Infectious Diseases, Düsseldorf,
    Germany over the past 19 years (1990–2009) were evaluated. Thirty-nine
    patients had persistently normal transaminases, 86 patients had ALT with
    1–2 × ULN (upper limit of normal) and 128 patients had ALT >2 × ULN.
    Liver fibrosis or inflammation was defined as significant for stages or
    grades ≥ 2 according to the Desmet/Scheuer score. Significant liver
    fibrosis (F ≥ 2) was found in 36%, cirrhosis in 18%, and significant
    inflammation (G ≥ 2) in 27% of patients with normal transaminases. There
    was no difference in the stage of liver fibrosis and the frequency of
    cirrhosis between patients with normal and elevated transaminases. The
    most important factor associated with the presence of cirrhosis in
    multivariate analysis was age ≥40 years (P < 0.003). If
    concomitant factors like elevated GGT or male sex were furthermore
    present high prevalences of significant liver disease were found. The
    data indicate that, in a European setting, patients with chronic
    hepatitis B infection, and normal transaminases frequently have
    significant liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. Therefore, liver biopsy or
    liver stiffness measurement (LSM) should be performed in these patients
    to determine the stage of liver fibrosis. J. Med. Virol. 83:968–973,
    2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Keywords:


    • HBV;
    • hepatitis B;
    • genotype;
    • lamivudine;
    • resistance;
    • YMDD


    Abstract

    Little
    is known about differences between individual hepatitis B genotypes and
    mutation patterns associated with lamivudine resistance. This study
    analyses the lamivudine-associated mutation pattern in relation to the
    four major HBV genotypes A–D. The PubMed database was screened for
    keywords “HBV OR Hepatitis B,” “YMDD,” “genotype,” and “lamivudine”; all
    identified publications published till June 2009 were analyzed for
    differences in mutation pattern. To confirm the literature-based
    findings the databases of two reference laboratories in Tübingen
    (Germany), and Melbourne (Australia) were analyzed. Twenty-nine studies
    were identified reporting 827 patients with known hepatitis B genotype
    who underwent lamivudine treatment and developed resistance mutations.
    The literature data revealed that genotype A favors the rtM204V mutation
    unlike the other major genotypes (P < 0.001), which
    corresponds to a significant difference in the mutation pattern of
    genotypes endemic in Asian countries and those found in the rest of the
    world. These significant findings of the literature-review could be
    reproduced in the analysis of the databases from Tübingen and Melbourne.
    Furthermore, the rtL180M mutation is significantly connected to the
    rtM204V mutation in genotypes A, B, and C, respectively. It is concluded
    that there is proof that HBV genotypes differ in their mutation pattern
    of lamivudine resistance. Future studies will need to evaluate whether
    this will translate into genotype-specific differences in resistance
    emergence on either entecavir or telbivudine as these antivirals differ
    in their mutation profile, rtM204V for entecavir and rtM204I for
    telbivudine. J. Med. Virol. 82:1850–1858, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.Keywords:


    • genotype;
    • hepatitis B virus;
    • interferon;
    • mutation;
    • natural history;
    • nucleotide analogue


    Recently,
    much progress has been made in the field of hepatitis B, such as
    natural history of the disease in relation to the amount of hepatitis B
    virus (HBV) DNA, genotypes of HBV influencing the natural course and
    treatment effects, mutations of HBV influencing the severity of the
    disease and development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and antiviral
    treatment such as nucleos(t)ide analogues and pegylated interferon. To
    make the consensus for the diagnosis, management and treatment of
    hepatitis B, a meeting was held during 45th annual meeting of Japan
    Society of Hepatology (JSH) in June 2009. In the meeting,
    recommendations and informative statements were discussed on the
    following subjects: (i) natural history of HBV infection; (ii) clinical
    implication of HBV genotypes; (iii) HBV mutations and their potential
    impact on pathogenesis of HBV infection; (iv) indications for antiviral
    treatment of chronic hepatitis B; (v) nucleos(t)ide analogues for
    chronic hepatitis B; and (vi) interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis
    B. The presenters reviewed the data on these subjects and proposed the
    consensus statements and recommendations. These statements were
    discussed among the organizers and presenters, and were approved by the
    participants of the meeting. In the current report, the relevant data
    were reviewed and the 12 consensus statements and nine recommendations
    on chronic hepatitis B were described.Keywords:


    • genotypes;
    • hepatitis B virus;
    • molecular epidemiology;
    • recombination


    Hepatitis
    B virus (HBV) is one of the most widely distributed viruses that infect
    humankind. Distinct clinical and virological characteristics of the
    HBV-infection have been reported in different geographical parts of the
    world and are increasingly associated with genetic diversity of the
    infecting virus. HBV is classified into genotypes and subgenotypes that
    are associated with ethnicity and geography. The genetic diversity of
    HBV in its various aspects has been the subject of extensive
    investigations during the last few decades. Since molecular epidemiology
    research tools have become widely available, the number of new
    publications in this field has grown exponentially. This review
    summarises the recent publications on the geographical distribution of
    genetic variants of HBV, and proposes updated criteria for the
    identification of new genotypes and subgenotypes of the virus.

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الخميس ديسمبر 14, 2017 6:25 am