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    للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

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    للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف admin في الجمعة أغسطس 06, 2010 1:22 pm





    للتحميل من هنا

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    رد: للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف رضوان الكامل في الجمعة أغسطس 06, 2010 10:21 pm

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    رد: للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف رضوان الكامل في الجمعة أغسطس 06, 2010 10:26 pm

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    رد: للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف رضوان الكامل في الجمعة أغسطس 06, 2010 10:28 pm

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    رد: للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف رضوان الكامل في الجمعة أغسطس 06, 2010 10:29 pm

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    رد: للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف رضوان الكامل في الجمعة أغسطس 06, 2010 10:31 pm

    Bovine Physical exam
    1. The first procedure is to obtain a urine sample--rub behind vagina-collect urine-for ketone bodies--ketosis test.
    2. The second procedure is to insert the thermometer. The pulse can also be taken at this point. Temperatures range from 101.5° to 103.5°F.
    3. Next is the visualization of the vulvar mucous membranes-vulvar mucous membranes should be moist, shiny, smooth, and pale pink. To assess the mucous membranes, gentle separation of the vulvar lips using both hands is preferred.
    4. Auscult Heart--The most successful way of examining the heart is to place the bell of the stethoscope sufficiently forward between the upper foreleg and the chest wall. The heart is located in the ventral part of the thorax between the third and sixth ribs. Careful interpretation of rate, rhythm, and heart sounds is necessary.
    5. It is also advised to observe the jugular vein and mammary vein for any signs of distention or pulsation while you are ausculting the heart. Most dairy cows with cardiac disease have tachycardia at rest, but many diseases result in high heart rates (such as infectious diseases).
    --Bradycardia (40-60 bpm) is often associated with vagal indigestion.
    --Muffled heart sounds occur with pericardial and pleural effusion.
    --Increased intensity of the heart sounds is associated with increased cardiac contractility.
    --Cardiac diseases such as bacterial endocarditis and some cases of lymphosarcoma can be accompanied by fevers. The most common cause of murmurs is bacterial endocarditis. The most common valve is the tricuspid on the right side followed by the mitral valve on the left.
    --Cardiac diseases may occur secondarily to GI diseases such as "hardware", traumatic reticulopericarditis. Muffled heart sounds with or without a washing machine-like murmur, distended jugular veins, jugular pulse and brisket edema are compatable findings with hardware disease.
    --Atrial fibrillation causes a irregularly, irregular heart beat, and is generally associated with a GI problem such as an LDA.
    -- Edema in the neck and brisket area are often associated with cardiac disease, or low plasma protein as is seen with Johne's disease, enteritis, or parasitism.
    --The jugular and abdominal veins should be palpated to assess the venous system. Distention of these veins are indicative of increased venous pressure. Assessment of the jugular pulses is best done with the head elevated and it is normal to see pulses at the level of the heart. With the head being elevated, make sure nothing is occluding the jugular veins to give a false positive. The vein will fail to empty with the occlusion of the vein with your hand and then the release of the occlusion when cardiac disease is present. Normal resting heart rate is 60 - 80 bpm. (Calves = 110 - 120 bpm.)
    Auscult Lungs--
    6. The assessment of abnormal lungs can be extremely difficult in the cow. The reason for this is that they have a smaller area to auscult due to the reduced number of ribs and a steeper angle of the diaphragm. The caudal border is the 11th rib and 9th and 5th rib respectively. Observation of rate and effort is important during auscultation. Cattle normally have a costoabdominal effort. The normal rate is 12 -36 bpm.
    Note the area of auscultation that is outlined with tape in the picture to the left. Caution: Significant pathological lesions may be present without any abnormal lung sounds.
    Pings on the Left Side--
    Ping the left side of the cow by simultaneously percussing and ausculting the whole left side of the cow by firmly flicking your finger against the body wall of the cow. A "ping" represents a fluid-gas interface. On the left side of the cow, gas may be present in the abomasum (LDA), rumen, or peritoneal cavity.
    LDA pings are variable in tone, and often tinkling sounds are heard over the area of the LDA.
    --Rumen pings are located over the rumen area and tend to be monotone. LDA and rumen pings often occur together and are usually distinguished by two distinct pings of different tones.
    LDA Ping



    This is “A”: This is the typical area for a left displaced abomasum (LDA). The ping in this area can and most often is loud and easily heard. Classically, the LDA ping is mid-thorax on a line from the point of the elbow to the hip. The most common question asked about LDAs is "why did it happen?". The best response to this question is that anything that causes the cow to go "off-feed" could result in a LDA. This is a very important point to remember. Some common causes of cattle to go "off-feed" include: metritis, mastitis, milk fever (periparturient hypocalcemia), nutritional, lameness, any other systemic illnesses.
    Rumen Ping-This is the typical area for a rumen gas cap. The ping in this area is most often loud and easily heard. Classically, the rumen gas cap is extremely dorsal in an area over the last few ribs, lumbar vertebrae, paralumbar fossa and hip. The rumen normally has a gas cap. However, when the rumen becomes atonic with decreased ingesta, a larger gas cap develops. Cattle that have been diagnosed with severe or septic illnesses usually lose their desire to eat that results in decreased rumination. If these conditions are allowed to go untreated, then rumen atony occurs. Typically these cows have a poor prognosis, since it is often difficult to jump start the rumen.
    This is “B”
    LDA + Rumen Gas Cap

    This is the combined area for a left displaced abomasum and a rumen gas cap.
    Auscult the Rumen
    Listen to the rumen contractions by placing your stethoscope in the left paralumbar fossa. Normal rumen contractions (1-3/minute) are strong, and can be felt and seen. Palpate, auscult, and ballot the rumen to assess consistency. A gradation in consistency exists from the dorsal to the ventral sac of the rumen. The dorsal sac of the rumen generally has a gas cap and becomes more doughy in consistency (feed layer) towards the ventral fluid-filled sac of the rumen. A rumen ping is differentiated from an LDA ping by its location over the left paralumbar fossa. It is possible to have a rumen ping and an abomasal ping at the same time, but they generally have different tones. If a ping with the same tone extends over both the rumen and the abomasal area, and rectal examination reveals a very small rumen with a distended gas-filled dorsal sac, the ping is most likely a rumen void ping .
    Pinch Withers-- Withers Pinch Test- Many gastrointestinal diseases cause abdominal pain in the cow. Cows with GI pain often stand hunched up with their elbows abducted. The withers can be pinched as shown in the picture (sometimes it requires two hands). A normal cow will dorsiflex her back when her withers are pinched as seen above. A cow who is painful will not dorsiflex. False negatives are common. Common reasons for abdominal pain are hardware, abomasal ulcers, or distention of the small intestine with gas.
    Grunt Test--Either by using your fists pushed up with your knee or by using a board with one person on each side lifting the board up, apply pressure to the xyphoid region. If the cow grunts, kicks, or acts uncomfortable, you can assume she is painful. Often, you have to listen over the trachea to hear a grunt.

    Examine Udder-- The ideal udder has symmetrical quarters and teats that subjectively look ideal for milking. Pendulous and irregular quarters are generally the result of stretching due to repeated episodes of edema after calving or inflammation. These udders can be more difficult to milk, but are probably not making the cow sick. Palpation of the udder gland is an art.
    --The best starting place for inexperienced students is to compare the quarters to each other. It is rare that all 4 quarters have mastitis, but common that all 4 quarters have edema. Generally an abnormal quarter will be obvious compared to the other 3 normal quarters. Abnormalities in consistency of the glandular tissue of the udder include edema, hardening, and acute swelling. The palpation findings should be integrated with the examination of the mammary secretions and the physical exam findings.
    --First, milk should be stripped from each quarter onto a strip plate. Any deviation from normal milk in color and consistency is abnormal. Then strip each quarter's secretion on top of each other and repeat in the reverse order. Any subtle abnormalities in secretion from quarter to quarter will be picked up in this method. This technique of stripping a quarter's milk onto a pooled milk sample is an excellent way to pick up watery milk.
    --It is critical to evaluate the mammary gland and integrate your findings with the rest of the physical exam to arrive at an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. For example, a cow with clots in the milk or a watery secretion accompanied by a normal physical exam is handled differently than a cow with a watery secretion, elevated heart rate and temperature, rumen stasis and diarrhea.
    --In general, contagious organisms, such as, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia, and Mycoplasma bovis tend to cause sub-clinical mastitis.
    ----The udder palpates normally, the milk grossly looks normal, and the cow's physical exam is normal. Special tests, such as, the cow-side CMT test, DHIA somatic cell counts would be needed to quantitate any inflammation in the udder, and bacterial culture would be necessary to make a diagnosis of the organism causing the sub-clinical mastitis.
    ----In general, the environmental organisms cause clinical mastitis (abnormal milk +/- swelling in the udder). The Strep. nonag. group of organisms cause clinical mastitis 50% of the time, and the coliform organisms (Eschericia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter sp., etc.) cause clinical mastitis 90% of the time. Probable diagnosis of the organism causing the mastitis can be made in certain cases.
    Secretions that smell foul and have a necrotic odor are usually caused by Arcanobacterium pyogenes or some anaerobe.
    --Secretions that are very watery accompanied by a swollen udder are generally caused by coliform organisms. Secretions: watery, but red accompanied by a sick cow are generally caused by Staph. aureus and carry a poor prognosis for recovery.
    All other gradation of secretions between the normal milk and the extreme watery secretion are indistinguishable from each other, and culture would be necessary to identify the organism causing the mastitis.
    Auscult right side of heart—similar to left side. The tricuspid valve is located between the shoulder and elbow at the third intercostal space.
    Auscult lungs on the right side of the cow--
    Right-sided Pings -- Ping the whole right side of the cow carefully. Pings on the right side are confusing, so care must be taken to delineate the borders of the ping. On the right side of the cow, gas may be present in the cecum, spiral colon, small intestine, duodenum, uterus (after calving), peritoneum, rectum, and abomasum (RDA, or RTA). Pings on the right side can be confusing, and location and repeatability of the ping are probably the most useful indicators as to the organ involved. While most pings on the left side of the cow are LDA, most pings on the right side of the cow are from spiral colon and cecum. Commonly, cows that are sick, especially with GI disturbances have pings in the right paralumbar fossa. A distended or displaced cecum will produce a consistent, large ping that is always palpable per rectum. RDA and RTA (right abomasal torsion) pings are usually cranial to the 8th rib. The RDA/RTA pings on the right side are more cranial in location compared to the LDA ping on the left side, which can be heard as far caudal as the cranial aspect of the left paralumbar fossa. Most right-sided abomasal problems have some degree of torsion associated with them, but the overall condition of the cow (heart rate, and degree of dehydration) indicates the severity and degree of torsion of the abomasum.







    Right Displaced Abomasum +/- Torsion



    A__This is the typical area for a right displaced abomasums-cranial to 8th rib Spiral Colon


    This is the typical area for a spiral colon ping.
    Cecum ping

    This is the typical area for a cecal ping
    Uterus ping

    The uterus can be heard in this general area.
    Rectum

    A pneumorectum can be heard in this general area
    Rectal Examination-- The rectal exam should be performed last to avoid creating pneumorectum and confusing the interpretation of abdominal auscultation and percussion. The rectal examination is an extremely important part of the physical exam and even if a sure diagnosis is made prior to this procedure, it should never be skipped. A routine sequence of examination should be established and the examiner should use a lot of lubrication. Manure and Uterine Discharge-- Examine the perineal and tail area for evidence of blood, mucus, discharge or feces. Fresh blood on the tail suggests the cow has just gone through estrus. A moderate stream of clear, highly viscous (stringy) mucus suggests a cow may be close to or in estrus. Sometimes a thin clear mucus may be seen with urine poolers(vaginitis) or cows with cystic ovarian disease. A variety of vaginal/uterine discharges may be evident depending on the stage of lactation. Fresh cows (cows that have calved recently) can have normal lochia (3-12 days postpartum) or depending on the severity of metritis may have thin, watery brown-red to tan discharge that is malodorous. The more mucoid the discharge, the less severe the metritis is for the cow. Normally cows should have a clean tail, perineal area. If there is a lot of manure on the tail, the cow may have diarrhea or perhaps tail paralysis. Inspect the manure for volume, color, fiber length, consistency, mucus-covering and odor. Absence of production of feces during the physical examination suggests reduced fecal output. Off-feed cows may produce scant, pasty feces and cows with intestinal stasis may have no feces or scant blood-tinged, thick mucous-covered feces. The color of the feces varies with feed and bile secretions. Feces covered with orange mucus is typical of bile secretions seen in cows with fatty liver. Excessive amounts of mucus may be seen with constipation or inflammatory bowel disease. Digested blood appears black (melena) and is caused by blood in the abomasum or proximal small intestine, and would typically be found in a cow with a bleeding abomasal ulcer. Fresh blood indicates bleeding from the distal intestine, and may occur with colitis caused by coccidiosis or clostridium enteritis. Fibrin occurs in severe inflammation such as that caused by salmonellosis and may appear as casts. Diarrhea can be associated with forestomach diseases such as displaced or ulcerated abomasum, or small intestinal problems. In general, large quantities of liquid feces suggest a small intestinal problem such as Johnes disease, winter dysentery, salmonellosis, or enteritis of unknown origin (bad feed?). Large quantities of well digested soft feces may suggest a large intestine problem. Pelvic Inlet-- Easily recognizable landmarks are the pelvic inlet, the pelvic/pubic brim, and the iliac shafts. The pelvic brim is useful because of its central location. It is necessary to do a thorough exam of the pelvic canal for gross changes that could be caused by severe vaginitis from birth trauma, abscesses or tumors. The reproductive tract including the cervix, and uterus should be located. The cervix is located in the middle of the floor of the pelvic cavity and should be freely movable. The uterine horns may be located in the pelvis or abdomen. Physiological and pathological conditions that affect the position and freedom of movement of the cervix are listed below: Cervix predominantly pelvic and freely movable ----Normal nonpregnant uterus ----Pregnancies up to 60 to 70 days---Postparturient involution more than 14 days after parturition ---Pyometra and hydrometra with exudates or secretion <2 liters --Chronic metritis without appreciable accumulation of exudates …Cervix abdominal and fixed ----Pregnancies after 70 days --Uninvoluted postpartum tract --Pyometra and hydrometra with exudates >2 liters ---Extensive adhesions --Tumors (Lymphosarcoma) See Reproductive Exam for more details... The bladder is palpable ventral to the reproductive tract if it is distended, but will not be palpable if it is empty. The deep inguinal lymph nodes can be palpated just cranial and lateral to the brim of the pelvis along each shaft of the ilium. Enlargement of these lymph nodes suggest pelvic inflammation, mastitis or lymphosarcoma. The iliac lymph nodes are palpated along the termination of the aorta. Rumen-- Next the rumen is palpated for size and consistency which varies with disease states. The rumen is palpated from the left of midline and cranial. The dorsal contents of the rumen may have some gas and are generally doughy, while the ventral contents are more fluid-like. Absence of a readily palpable rumen in an off-feed cow sometimes results in a "rumen void" ping which can be heard during simultaneous auscultation and percussion of the left side of the abdomen. This "rumen void" ping can be confused with a diagnosis of LDA.
    Kidney-- To the right of the rumen in the midline area is the left kidney. The arm is normally inserted beyond the elbow to find the left kidney unless it is enlarged. The most common reason for enlargement of the kidney is pyelonephritis. Often a kidney with pyelonephritis is painful on palpation.
    Right Quadrant-- Small bowel and cecum are palpated ventral and to the right of the left kidney. The right side of the abdomen will feel empty if everything is normal. Potential pathological conditions such as a distended cecum or small intestine are readily palpable in this region.








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    رد: للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف رضوان الكامل في الجمعة أغسطس 06, 2010 10:33 pm

    Physical Examination Protocol
    Equipment:
    thermometer, stethoscope, ketone test, strip cup, rectal sleeves, lube, strong flashlight.

    Make sure the cow is well and safely restrained. Rule #1 is always: DON’T GET HURT!

     First, examine the cow from a distance for her attitude, stance, general condition and skin. If you can, try to tell it she has been eating; assess abdominal fill. Look at her eyes to see it they are sunken or dull. Assess her body score.
     Attempt to get a urine sample for ketones by rubbing on the skin just under the vulva. Run the ketone test. This is best done before disturbing the cow by examining her.
     Take the cow’s temperature (normal is 100 to 102.5 degrees F; 37.8 – 39.2 C).
     Examine the vulva and skin below it for any discharges, mucus, etc. Pay attention for foul smells. Palpate the supramammary lymph nodes if they can be felt. Assess the degree of edema in the udder from the rear.
     Look down along the cow’s side and watch her ribs move in and out and count her respirations. Normal is 20 to 40 per minute, but it will definitely go higher in hot weather. Assess the pulse from the tail artery.
     Move up her left side and listen to her rumen in the triangle formed by her last rib and the spine at her loin (the paralumbar fossa). Also feel for how much each rumen contraction moves her paralumbar fossa in and out. The degree of motion is a better measure of strength of rumen contractions than the amount of sound you hear. The normal cow has about two rumen contractions per minute (typically one at time zero, then 20 seconds or so later, then quiet for 40 seconds or so). Ballotte the rumen to see how firm or fluid it is, for normal stratification of contents, listen simultaneously for splashy sounds. As you stand there listening, look at the left hind leg for injury, swelling, etc and palpate her left pre-femoral lymph node.
     Ping the left side of the cow by listening with your stethoscope while striking hard next to it with a flicked finger. Move around and ping over a wide area under the back of the ribs and the flank from top to bottom. If you find a ping, determine its size by moving the head of the stethoscope around and pinging. The ping is where the stethoscope is, not where you hit.
     Listen to the heart under the left elbow and count beats and listen for murmurs. Normal heart rate in the cow is 60 to 80 beats per minute. As you listen, look at the left front leg for injury, swelling, etc. Check the left pre-scapular lymph node. Strip blood from the mammary view and observe for backfill.
     Listen to the lungs on the left side. This takes a lot of practice and experience to tell normal from abnormal. You should be able to just hear air moving in and out in most cows. You may also listen to the trachea from the left.
     Look at the left side of her neck and head for obvious problems. Pick up a fold of skin and let it go to test for dehydration. With experience you will be able to tell if the skin stays puckered up too long (dehydrated). A more reliable test is to pinch the skin just above the eye and to look to see it the eye looks dull or sunken into the socket. Check the brisket, particularly for edema.
     Smooth your hand across the top line feeling for swelling, emphysema, warbles, etc.
     Check for abdominal pain by squeezing down on the withers while watching the cow’s expression or listening at the trachea. A similar test can be done by pushing in the xiphoid region.
     Move back around to the right side and ping the right side of the abdomen. Pings here are harder to interpret. While there, look at the right hind leg and check the pre-femoral node.
     Listen to the heart and lungs on the right side. Look at the right front leg and check the pre-scapular node.
     Look up the right side of the head and neck and check the top line on the right.
     Palpate the udder, check for pyoderma. Examine each teat. Strip milk from each quarter of the udder and examine the teats and udder, looking for any abnormality.
     Put on a rectal sleeve and reach into the rectum, pulling a sample of the manure out and examining it. Check the cervix, uterus, ovaries, left kidney, rumen, iliac lymph nodes, and sweep the right abdominal space for abnormalities.
     Look at the cow from the front and make sure that both sides of her head are symmetrical, she is alert, bright, and the eyes are not sunken, and her nose is clean.
     Examine the nostrils, submandibular lymph nodes, and open the mouth and check for lesions, blunted papillae, etc. Smell the breath; some people can smell ketones. Look at the eyes (abnormalities, pupilary response) and sclera and tent the skin on the upper eyelid for dehydration.

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    رد: للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف رضوان الكامل في الجمعة أغسطس 06, 2010 10:33 pm

    UNIT 2: Clinical Examination

    History Taking
    History taking or anamnesis is the process of obtaining information on the animal patient about its illness, onset of illness, feeding practice etc through careful questioning of the owner. In Veterinary practice, the disease is presented indirectly in the form of a complaint by the owner or the attendant. Thus it is very necessary to have all the information form the owner. Most of the time, the owner or attendant fails to provide pertinent and adequate history and inaccurate history may lead to misdiagnosis. The clinician must substantiate these with rational question utilizing professional knowledge.

    History taking is important for the following reasons:
    • To get complete information about the illness of the animal patient, as the animal patient cannot talk as in the case of human patient.
    • Owner is the first person to notice the illness and he will have noted the clinical symptoms, which will give us some important clues for the diagnosis.
    • To rule out the diseases those are species specific and age specific. For example FMD in bovine not in horses, milk fever in lactating cows not in calf.

    Dos during history taking
     Be polite while asking questions to the farmers
     Use simple language, if possible it is best to speak the language of the farmer
     Be humerous but not sarcastic so as to offend the farmer
     Be empathic and try to show that you are concerned about the farmer’s problem

    Avoid being rude to the farmers while taking history, do not be authoritative and shout, and always avoid leading question.

    Cautions: be at a look out for the following points:
     Some farmers may give wrong history / information
    - to hide their mistakes
    - fear of being scolded for the mistake they committed
    - to hide their negligence
     Some farmers may not talk for various reasons in that case
    - start with their family before you ask them question about the animal disease
    - encourage them to speak, gradually ask question on the animals
     Some farmers may be talkative and may talk about what is not relevant the history trying to collect
    - in such a case select the information that are relevant the particular sick animal only and avoid other information that are not related to the diseases condition of animal presented to the hospital
     Some farmers may not know anything about the problem, this normally happen when a farmer attending the animal notices the problem and sends his children or a neighbour along with the animal to the veterinary centre. In such a case you might have to wait for the farmer himself or ask the representative of the farmers if he/she heard anything about the problem mentioned by the farmer.
    History taking may be achieved under three headings via:

    1. Immediate history (present history):
    It comprises of recording the sequential events from the start of the illness. Questions about physiological functions such as appetite, urination, defecation, rumination, respiration, sweating, milk production, gait, posture and also of the first symptoms shown by the animal should be asked. All these information deal with the current problem of the animal and the events associated with it.

    Points to note:
    1. Locations of the problems: listen carefully to the complain that a farmer has to say and from there you can tentatively say the likely system involved in that condition for example
     Digestive system involvement will be shown as absence of rumination, appetite, bloat or diarrhoea
     Respiratory system involvement will be indicated presence of nasal discharge, coughing, dyspnoea
     Urinary system involvement will be manifested as frequent urination, passing red coloured or cloudy urine
     Musculo-skeletal and nervous system involvement will be manifested as lameness, inco-ordination, paralysis

    2. Nature of illness: while trying to assess this you should try to find out the TIME of onset of disease, ANY CHANGE in managements practices, and signs noticed by the farmers. In doing this some of the questions that are required to be asked are:
     When did the farmer notice the disorder? (time)
     Did it occur suddenly/slowly? (acute /sub acute / chronic nature)
     What were the signs noticed? (anorexia/drop in milk yield/ others)
     Is the animal fed / grazed in pasture / forest grazed? (getting information on management practices e.g. ketosis seen in stall fed animals, while babesiosis seen in forest grazed animals)
     Is there any other animal affected with similar condition in the same herd / in other farmer’s herd in the village (to find out if the disease is rapidly spreading)
     Ask if there has been any introduction of new animal to the herd / village (sick animal may have been bought from affected area and disease has started)
     Is the affected animal vaccinated against food-and-mouth disease (FMD), anthrax, haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), Black quarter (BQ) (to find out if the animal is protected against common diseases)

    2. Past Histories:
    Inquiring into the past history may help in arriving at a diagnosis. History of drenching a day or two earlier may cause aspiration pneumonia. History of past disease may be co-related to the present illness. Past history will also give idea if such condition prevailed previously in the area.
    Points to note:
     Ask if such condition was reported previously too (reveal endemic nature of disease, or occurrence of a new disease)
     Does this occur at certain period of time? (find out the seasonal occurrence of the disease)
     Was the disease reported form other places in the locality? (area of spread / occurrence can be found out)
     Has any animal recovered from such a sickness? (to aid in prognosis)
     Is the disease restricted to certain age group / sex? (BQ is seen in animals between 1 – 3 years of age in both sexes).

    3. Nutritional history.
    The state of nutrition may have some bearing on the health of animals and enquiries on nutrition may prove helpful in diagnosing a disease. Change in diet may lead to diarrhoea and feeding of excessive carbohydrate rich feed may result into acid indigestion.

    4. Environment History:
    Environment or surrounding of the animals may help in the diagnosis of disease. e.g.-
    Animal grazing on pasture irrigated with sewerage water may suffer from nitrate poisoning. Parasitic diseases are more in animals, which are kept in marshy lands. Recent spraying of weedicide or insecticides may poison the animals. Environmental history can be divided into outdoor environment and indoor environment.

    Outdoor environment history:
    This include the information with regard to the topography of land where animals are reared, vegetation, type of agriculture practised in the locality, use of chemicals in agriculture (pesticide, weedicide) and system garbage disposal in the area. Animals that are grazed are likely to be infested by parasites and prone to vector borne diseases like babesiosis, trypanosomaisis, or animals that are grazed in the marshy area including paddy filed are likely to be infested by liver fluke etc.

    Indoor environment history:
    When this is been assessed you should pay attention to the type of animal house, look if there is proper ventilation, in the rural area traditionally animals are housed in the ground floor of the house where there hardly any ventilation and this will predispose the animals to respiratory diseases, if the animals are stall fed check if the animals are provided with enough drinking water, see if the floor is dry and clean, damp and dirty floor may lead to mastitis in milking animals, if the bedding materials are used see if the materials are changed daily of topped daily to keep the animals dry and clean. If the animals are housed separately see if the height of the roof is at a required level, if it is too low, in hot places like Lobesa animals may be subjected to heat stress in summer months, if it is too high animals will be exposed to rain. It is also important to check the health of cowboy because if he infected with zoonotic diseases like tuberculosis animals may get infected as well.

    Methods of examination
    A clinician has responsibility towards the farmer who has brought the animal for treatment with the hope that it will be cured from disease and put back into production or back to work. Clinician is also responsible to the animal patient itself and there should not be any misdiagnosis and wrong treatment, which might affect the life of the animal adversely.

    The only tools available for use with the clinician are his / her sharp eyes for detailed examination, skilled hands for performing any task that may be required and good reasoning ability to analyze, and synthesize information that are narrated by the farmer and fit into the observations made.

    Laboratory tests for diagnosis
    For a farmer it is more important to get the animal cured and get back into production or back to work and there is no time to be wasted. As a clinician it is important to examine the animal and arrive at a diagnosis and treat the animal. If need be collect relevant samples send them to lab for test while treatment is being continued. Never wait for the result to come from lab and treat it may be too late.

    The various methods available for examinations are:
    1. Inspection observing the animal patient through eyes
    2. Palpation feeling with fingertips and hands
    3. Percussion tapping animal body / part of body with fingertips
    4. Succussion shaking animal body from side to side to detect fluid in body cavity
    5. Auscultation listening to sound from organs like heart/ lungs.

    Inspection: is the method by which animal patient is examined from a distance without disturbance. (refer general inspection for detail)

    Palpation: is the method of examination of animal body or part by applying light pressure with fingertips. Prior to this the normal feelings of various parts of animal body has to be known and this skill has to be developed through continuous practice.
    Informations that can be obtained from performing palpation are:
    - Presence and intensity of pain
    - Size, shape & consistency of organ or growth
    - Sensitivity of part of animal body high sensitivity, no sense
    - Abnormalities of urogenital organs can be palpated through per rectum
    - Cutaneous thermal level can be detected by palpation of skin

    Consistencies that can be felt on palpation are described as:
    - Resilient – area palpated returns to normal position soon after palpation
    - Doughy – after palpation the print of the finger tips are left on the area palpated
    - Firm – tissue appear solid like muscles and liver
    - Hard – tissue feels like bone
    - Fluctuating – tissue palpated feels soft, elastic and undulates
    - Emphysematous – the tissue palpated crackles on and there is sort of spongy feeling due to subcutaneous accumulation of gas.




    Some of the structures that can be palpated and what they are palpated for are:

    Organs palpated for:
    Superficial arteries pulse
    Uterus pregnancy
    Muscles pain / swelling
    Bone fracture / growth
    Stomach, intestine pain
    Oesophagus obstruction
    Rumen bloat, impaction

    Percussion: method of examination in which part of body to be examined is struck with sharp blow using fingertips to produce audible sound. Sound thus emitted will indicate the nature of the tissue / organ involved for example rumen when bloated will emit drum like sound. Some of the organs that can be examined by percussion are: gastro-intestinal tract, abdomen and thorax, frontal and nasal sinuses.

    Sounds produced from various structures can be described as:
    - dull / flat – sound without resonance or echo, this type of sound can be heard on percussion of thick muscles or bone.
    - Full sound – sound heard is with resonance but not booming like drum. This type of sound is heard from tissues like lungs that contain air inside.
    - Tympanic sound – drum like sound can be heard, and this type of sound is heard from bloated rumen, abomasums and intestine.

    Tactile percussion or ballottement: is method in which palpation and percussion are combined together to feel structures that cannot be felt by either of these methods applied singly. This is normally used for pregnancy diagnosis in cows when the foetus cannot be palpated through per rectum. Here a firm-pushing stroke is applied on to the uterus and the hand after pushing is kept in contact with uterus so that the foetus will bound and strike on it. While firm pushing is done, this sets fluid in uterus into motion and foetus is made to bounce.

    Fluid percussion: here fluid present in the body cavities can be detected by percussing on one side and palpation is done on other side.
    Auscultation:
    Word auscultation comes from ‘auscutona’ meaning ‘to listen’. This is a technique of listening to the sounds produced from organs in the abdominal and thoracic cavities. In olden days listening to these sounds were done with naked ears. This had certain limitations like the skin on animal being dirty and infested by parasites it was not healthy for the clinicians and was difficult to keep ears in contact on animal body due to constant movement. Therefore, an instrument was later developed for this purpose and this is called stethoscope. The figure below shows the stethoscope.


    Parts of stethoscope

    Types of auscultation:
    Auscultation can be of two types:
    1. Direct method and
    2. Indirect method.

    Direct method was used in olden days before the invention of stethoscope and the clinicians listened to the sounds of heart and lungs by placing their ears directly on animal body. Disadvantages of this method are listed above. Indirect method is using stethoscope, which is widely practiced these days.

    Steps in auscultation
    Place the ear piece into the ears, hold the chest piece and give a gentle tap on diaphragm, if no sound is heard adjust it by holding rubber tube with one hand and turning the chest piece with the other until there is ‘click’ sound. Tap again there should be amplified sound heard. Place the chest piece over the desired area and listen to the sound hear or lungs accordingly. Areas for listening to heart and lungs sounds are shown below, for rumen left flank region can be used.


    Area for lungs auscultation Area for heart auscultation
    Succusion
    It is the method used to determine the presence of fluid in the body cavities like thoracic and abdominal cavity. Here the animal is shaken from side to side to set fluid into motion so that audible fluid sound is produced. This is difficult in large animals and can be applied only in small animals like dogs and cats.

    General examination of animal
    General examination of animal patent is necessary to get basic information on housing, management practices and the environment on which animal is being reared. This is also being done to cross match complain of owner about the sickness of animal. During this the animal has to be examined at its normal environment if possible without any disturbance. For the better understanding this can be divided into:








    Inspection
    Under this heading the patient is examined and the details noticed by the clinicians are noted and attempt is made to cross match what the owner complains by looking at the animal. This is further divided into patient information and general inspection.

    1. Patient information
    This is the identification of the animal patient that is being presented for the treatment. This is the must for the following reasons:
     Keep record of animal attended by you
     Record of treatment – you can refer back later on and see treatment given
     Reference – can be used as a reference by you or your successor
     Legal document – if a case is filed by farmer saying that your treatment has caused problems in his animal this can be used as an evidence to prove if what farmer claim is true or false.
    Important things to be noted are:
    Species:
    There is a mark difference in the susceptibility to a particular disease. For instance, Horses are highly susceptible to Glanders whereas cattle are immune to them. Similarly, cattle are most vulnerable to FMD while horses are immune to this disease.

    Breed:
    High producing dairy breeds are prone to production diseases. Photosensitization is more common in light coloured horses and pigs.
    Sex:
    Certain disease pertains to either sex only by virtue of. Anatomical differences For instant metritis is a disease of female while Testicular degeneration is the disease of male only.

    Age:
    Age also play a role to narrow down the field of diagnosis. For example, young cattle are susceptible to worm infestation than adults.

    Colour
    Colour has to be recorded for reference and for legal purpose in case the animal dies after treatment and the owner sues clinician.

    Besides, markings, brands or any identification should be recorded as well.

    Patient information can be recorded in a format shown below

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    CASE SHEET
    O.P No / I.P No............... Date:.............
    Name of owner: ................ Animal Species:............. Breed:............
    Address: ........................... Sex: ................ Age: ..............
    ........................................ Weight: ............. Colour: ........…………………….

    General appearance:
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Clinical Examination:
    Temperature: Pulse: Respiration: Mucous membrane

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    History / complain:
    2. General inspection
    This is examination of patient from a distance to confirm and see if what farmer complained is true or not. To do this do not disturb the animal, do not go near the animal but observe it from a distance and note the following points as you take history:

    Appearance:
    Abnormal conformation of the body is suggestive of certain diseases. For example, bending of legs indicates Rickets. Also note if animal is active / dull / depressed / ruffled feathered / droopy or keeping aloof.

    Body condition:
    The body condition can be judged through inspection and digital palpation. From patho-physiological and nutritional point of view, the body condition of the animals may be demarcated as follows.
    a) Normal
    Body is well built up and all the bony prominences are adequately covered with muscles and fat.

    b) Fatty (Obessed)
    Excessive deposition of fat in the fat depots. Obsessed animal have lower resistance to disease and very often, it may endanger the life of animals through cardiac, renal and hepatic insufficiencies.

    c) Emaciated/ Hide bound/.Cachectic:
    In all these there is wasting or atrophy of muscles leading to bony “Skeletal appearances”. In hide bound condition the skin losses its elasticity and adhere firmly to the underlying tissues and it becomes impossible to tent the skin. This condition could be due to malnutrition, Senility, Heavy parasitism, diseases like T.B, Para tuberculosis etc.

    Skin and hair coat:
    The condition of the body coat and skin indicate the state of nutrition and the health of the animal. The hair coat of the animal appears fine, shinning and smooth. In cattle presence of lick marks indicates good health. In febrile conditions hair may be erect and in all chronic diseases with disturbances in nutrition, hair become rough, lusterless dry and coarse. Alopecia (Loss of hair) may occur due to diseases like ring worm, scabies, eczema, Iodine and Vit A deficiencies, etc but periodical shedding of hair should not be regarded as abnormal. Colour of the skin varies in different species and breeds of animals. Hairless parts of the body are the sites for observation. These are the inner surface of thighs, ventral abdomen, pinna or ear, udder, scrotum and perineal region. Discoloration of the skin may arise due to anaemia, cyanosis, jaundice, hyperaemia, etc.

    Posture:
    Posture means the anatomical configuration of animals when they remain standing. And sitting in other words, it means how the animal stands and sits. Postural abnormalities can be of great help in making a diagnosis.

    Some of the abnormal postures in relation to certain diseases are as follows:

    Posture Disease/disorders
    Cow sit on sternum with head flexed to one side and resting on the flank Milk Fever
    Abducted elbow with extension of head and neck accompanied by mouth breathing in farm animals Pneumonia
    Arched back with tense abdomen Peritonitis
    Extension and rigidity of limbs, neck, ear and jaw Tetanus
    A male dog urinating like a bitch Cystitis

    Gait: denotes the locomotor processes of the animals. A locomotor disturbance of the animal is judged by the movements (Walking, running, trotting, circling etc.) There are certain diseases, which interfere with the process of locomotion. Some of the abnormal gait in relation to the diseases is as follows:




    Gait Disease
    Lameness and disinclination to move Laminitis, foot rot
    Stiff gait Arthritis
    Walking in circles / head pressing Gid (Coenuruses)/otitis/ listeriosis
    Dragging of the hind leg subluxation of medial patellar ligament

    Abnormal Action:
    Some disturbances bring about abnormal action on the part of the animals mainly as an instinctive action to alleviate the pain and discomfort. Therefore observing the abnormal actions may help in diagnosis.

    Rumination:
    Rumination is a normal physiological action in normal health. Suspension of rumination is invariably considered as an abnormality in digestion.

    Respiration:
    Respiratory movements can be observed at the right flank. Any change in the rate indicates respiratory involvement. Thoracic respiration is seen in animals suffering from acute peritonitis and abdominal respiration in pleurisy. Double expiratory movements are seen in emphysema in horses.

    Discharges (Exudates)
    It is important to observe for any secretions and excretions from natural orifices like eyes, nose, vulva, ear, mouth, etc. By nature, discharges may vary from serous, mucoid, mucopurulent and purulent to sanguineous.
    Clinical Examination
    Temperature:
    Temperature is the measure of how hot or cold the animal body is. On the basis of the ability to regulate body temperature animals are divided into two groups viz homeotherms and poikilotherms. Homeotherms are those animals including man that can regulate their temperature in relation to the environmental temperature. Poikilotherms are those animals that are unable to regulate their body temperature in relation to the environmental temperature. eg. Amphibians, Reptiles and fishes. Heat is generated in the body via the intracellular oxidation of food and the muscular activities .It is lost via the physical process of conduction, convection, and radiation and through the evaporation, respiration and excretion.

    Thermoregulatory mechanism
    Thermoregulation is a complex process involving brain (hypothalamus), hormones and chemical reaction in the cells. When it is cold (low environmental temperature) the thremoreceptor in the skin are stimulated which in turn stimulate the hypothalamus in the brain. The thermoregulatory centre in hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland to release the thyroid-stimulating hormone, which stimulate thyroid gland for the release of thyroxin (hormone). Thyroxin stimulates the cells and there is increased metabolic reaction (oxidation of food in the cells) resulting into increased production of heat. Therefore, on a cold day there is need for more food, as most of it will be utilised for heat production. On the contrary when it is hot there is almost the same type of chain reaction similar to the cold day but instead of stimulating the thyroid gland there is inhibitory action which result into the non release of thyroxin from thyroid gland and there is cessation of metabolic reaction in the cells and no heat is produced internally. When it is very hot animal try to reduce heat production by reduced feed intake and there is initiation of cooling mechanism by which sweating is stimulated which cool down the body.

    The body temperatures of different species of domestic animals vary. Normal temperature of domestic animals is as shown below:

    Animals  C  F
    Cattle 38.6 102
    Yak 38.5 101
    Horse 38.1 101
    Sheep 39.5 103
    Goat 40. 104
    Pig 38.9 102
    Dog 38.9 102
    Cat 38.6 102
    Chicken 41.7 107
    Rabbit 38.6 102
    Man 37 98.6

    Instrument for recording temperature:
    The temperature is recorded with the help of an instrument called clinical thermometer. It consists of a mercury reservoir communicating with a thin capillary channel. A graduation between 94º F to 110º F and 35º C to 45º C is usually used in animal practice.





    Recording Temperature:
    Site for recording temperature in animals is in the rectum and it is called the rectal temperature.

    Method of recording temperature:

    1. Keep the bulb of the thermometer immersed in the antiseptic solution for sterilization.
    2. Bring down the column of the mercury before recording the temperature by shaking.
    3. Lubricate the bulb with liquid paraffin or Glycerine or soap and water, when the thermometer is to be used in pup or kitten.
    4. Insert the bulb of the thermometer into the rectum and tilt to one side so that the bulb of the thermometer touches the mucous membrane of the rectum.
    5. Keep the thermometer in this position for one minute.
    6. Take it out, wipe the faeces with cotton and read the temperature directly.





    Precaution:

    1. If the animal has walked a long distance it must be given rest for 20-30 minutes before recording the temperature.
    2. Animal should be kept away from the hot sun prior to recording temperature.
    3. Thermometer should be properly washed after each use.
    4. The thermometer should be checked before use.

    Interpretation of thermometer: Thermometer reading will reveal if the temperature of animal being examined is normal, above normal (fever) of below normal (subnormal). Based on this finding action taken will vary.

    Fever: denotes the elevation of body temperature of animal above normal. It is a general reaction of animal and human body to the action of infectious agents like bacteria, virus, parasites and exogenous substances like bacterial toxins. Fever is produced whenever the thermoregulatory mechanism is impaired. Severe rise in temperature will be noticed in conditions like FMD, Rinderpest, acute anthrax, babesiosis etc.

    Signs of fever:
    Animal will refuse to eat either completely or partially (anorexia), hair on the body might be seen standing up, dullness, and dry muzzle.

    Fever management:
    There are preparations to reduce temperature. Preparations like paracetamol, Phenylbutazone is normally given to control fever (refer drug index for these preparations) in addition keeping animals in cool place. For complete cure the cause of fever has to be removed.

    Subnormal temperature / hypothermia:
    The temperature of animal drops below normal and this occurs when animals get exposed to extreme cold for example when a calf is exposed to heavy rain, when animal is in shock and a clinical condition like milk fever. Here the animal body is unable to regulate body temperature or the heat regulatory mechanism fails to generate heat to compensate the heat loss from the body.

    Signs of hypothermia:
    Shivering, chattering of teeth, cold extremities and skin on touch, and reduced pulse and respiratory rates are observed.

    Hypothermia management:
    Place the affected animal in warm place or provide shelter to protect from rain, rub extremities and apply liniments if available, provide warm porridge if animal has appetite, inject warm DNS / NS, inject calcium preparations in the case of milk fever the temperature will automatically rise.

    PULSE:
    Pulse is defined as the regular expansion and contraction of the arterial wall caused by the flow of blood through it at every heartbeat. Pulse gives information with regard to the cardio-vascular abnormalities. It is influenced by exercise, excitement, annoyance, relative humidity, environmental temperature etc.


    Site for taking pulse

    Animals Site
    Horse, Donkey, Mule, External maxillary artery
    Cattle, Buffalo, pig and Yak. Middle coccygeal artery.
    Sheep, Goat, Calf. Femoral artery.
    Piglet, Dog and Cat. Femoral artery.
    Man Carotid or Cephalic artery.


    Method to record pulse:
    1. Hold the tail / limb.
    2. Locate the artery for recording pulse accordingly.
    3. Place the tip of the index / middle finger on the artery.
    4. Count the pulse for one minute and record it.


    Site for taking pulse in cattle site for taking pulse in horse


    Factors influencing pulse
    Species: different species of animal have different pulse rate, which is number of rise and fall of arterial wall per minute.

    Age: Younger animals have higher pulse rate compared to the adult animals. E.g. a calf will have higher pulse rate than a cow or a bull.


    RESPIRATION
    Respiration is the process of inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide. The number of respiration per minute is called the respiration rate. (Refer AAP for Organs making respiratory system
    Terms:
    1. Eupnoea: Is the normal quiet breathing with normal respiratory rate.

    2. Hyperpnoea: Means increase in the rate of respiration.

    3. Oligopnoea: Means decrease in the rate of respiration.

    Types of respiration:
    1. Costal respiration: In this type of respiration thoracic muscles are mainly involved and the movement of the rib cage is more prominent. It is seen in dogs and cats.

    2. Abdominal respiration: This type of respiration is seen in ruminants viz cattle, goat, sheep and yak. Here the abdominal muscles are involved and movement of the abdominal wall is noticed

    3. Costo- abdominal respiration: In this type of respiration muscles of both thorax and abdomen are involved so the movement of the ribs and the abdominal wall are noticed.

    Methods to determine respiration:
    1. By observing the movements of the ribs.
    2. By holding the dorsal part of the hand in front of the nostril of the animal.
    3. By auscultation, i.e. listening with the help of stethoscope.

    Note: Using any of the above methods, number of respirations per minute is counted and recorded, which is the respiration rate.

    Auscultation: is the process of listening to the sounds produced by organs in the thoracic cavity like heart and lungs and those in abdominal cavity like stomach (also rumen in the case of ruminants) and intestine. Auscultation is essential to ascertain some pathological conditions like pneumonia in animals where abnormal respiratory sound can be heard. Auscultation is done using an instrument called stethoscope (refer methods of examination).

    Normal pulse and respiration rate for the various animals are given below:

    Species Pulse rate/min Respiration rate/min
    Cattle 60 - 90 25 - 30
    Horse 28 - 42 8 – 16
    Sheep 68 - 90 10 – 20
    Goat 68 - 90 10 – 20
    Pig 60 - 90 10 – 20
    Dog 90 - 130 16 – 30
    Cat 110 - 130 20 – 30
    Chicken 200 - 400 15 – 30
    Rabbit 300 - 330 32 - 60
    Elephant 46 - 50 12 - 18
    Man 70 - 72 20 – 25


    Visible mucous membrane: The mucous membrane in the eyes, mouth and vagina in the case of females can be examined to determine the health status of an animal. Examination of the mucous membrane should be done in natural light (sunlight) not in the lamplight. Mucous membrane examination can reveal anaemic or jaundice of an animal patient. Severe anaemic condition may be noticed when there is heavy blood loss due to heavy parasite or haemorrhage due to accident. When there is disease associated with liver damage there may be jaundice. The normal colour of different species of animal is listed below:

    Animal Colour of mucous membrane
    Cattle, yak, buffalo, sheet and goat Pale pink
    Horse Pale roseate
    Pig Reddish
    Dog Pale roseate
    Cat Pale pink


    Superficial lymph nodes:
    It is important to examine the superficial lymph nodes while examining the animal to rule out the tick borne disease like theileriosis during which enlargement of the superficial lymph nodes will be noticed. The superficial lymph nodes that can be palpated are intermandibular, pre-scapular, pre-femoral lymph nodes. (The location of each of these will be taken during the practical class)


    رضوان الكامل

    المساهمات : 16
    تاريخ التسجيل : 06/08/2010

    رد: للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف رضوان الكامل في الجمعة أغسطس 06, 2010 10:35 pm


    Clinical Diagnosis of Ruminant
    Animals Diseases
    Part II
    التشخيص الاكلينيكي لأمراض المجترات
    الجزء الثانى
    By
    Prof. Dr. Ibrahim H.A. Abd El-Rahim
    Professor of Infectious Diseases,
    Animal Medicine Department,
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University
    E-mail: [ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


    Examination of the respiratory system فحص الجهاز التنفسى
     First observe the breathing from a distance, while listening for abnormal sounds associated with breathing.
     Next examine each segment of the respiratory tract separately in the following order: breath, muzzle, nose and nasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx, trachea and lungs.
     At the same time inspect the chest wall for pathological changes.
    Respiratory movements حركة التنفس
    - Breathing is best observed from behind and to one side of the animal, without disturbing the animal, by watching movements of the costal arch and flank.
    - Rate, intensity, type and rhythm should be considered. Intensity is normally moderately pronounced in cattle, so respiratory movements of chest and abdominal wall are clearly visible.
    - In normal breathing rhythm the ratio of duration of inspiration to duration of expiration is about 1.0 to 1.2; there is a short pause in breathing at the end of expiration.
    - Eupnoea: Breathing of normal frequency, intensity, type and rhythm is called eupnoea.

    Dyspnea ضيق التنفس
    Difficulty in breathing with changes in normal characteristics (normal frequency, intensity, type and rhythm) accompanying respiratory disease.
    1. Inspiratory dyspnoeaضيق التنفس أثناء الشهيق
    - It is characterized by more frequent breathing and by stronger and longer inspiration due to narrowing of the upper air passages and those forms of bronchopneumonia unaccompanied by pulmonary emphysema.
    - Signs of severe dyspnoea are extension of the head and neck, nostril dilation during inspiration, spreading of the scapulas, slack or sunken flanks and sagging belly; sometimes sounds of stenosis are audible at a distance from the animal.
    2. Expiratory dyspnoea ضيق التنفس أثناء الزفير
    - If breathing out is impeded, expiratory dyspnoea occurs characterized by mainly abdominal breathing and stronger and longer breathing out than breathing in.
    - The forced breathing out distends the flank and anal region, and it is often accompanied by long groans. Other symptoms are breathing with the mouth open and the tongue protruded.
    3. Mixed dyspnoea ضيق التنفس أثناء الشهيق والزفير
    - It occurs with chronic respiratory disease, and here there is difficulty in breathing in and out.
    - It occurs during primary pulmonary emphysema.
    Externally audible sounds associated with breathing
    أصوات غير طبيعية مسموعه ومصاحبة لعملية التنفس
    These have to be differentiated according to origin & cause, as follows:
    o Snorting - a sneezing sound produced by a brief, powerful expiration through the nose (occurs during irritation of the nasal mucosa).
    o Stenosis sounds - produced by constriction, in the upper respiratory tract. Nasal stenosis sound (snuffling). Pharyngeal stenosis sound (snoring). Laryngeal stenosis produces roaring in the throat (calf diphtheria).
    o Coughing – Due to inflammation of the respiratory mucous membrane. The type of cough may provide a clue to the site of the lesion: it is relatively dry & powerful in diseases of the upper respiratory tract, and more moist & feeble during the more deep-seated bronchopneumonia, pulmonary emphysema or pleurisy.
    Nasal dischargeالافزات الانفية
    - The colour is normally water-clear and serous, otherwise whitish and cloudy; red to rust-brown if due to haemorrhage.
    - The consistency is normally watery, otherwise mucoid or flocculated in catarrhal or purulent inflammation; lumpy or crumbly in necrotic inflammation.
    - The odour is normally odourless (foul in deep-seated tissue damage).
    - Any sputum ejected from the mouth or nose is always pathological, and should be examined in the same way as nasal discharge.

    Lungs and pleura الرئة والغشاء البلورى
    The lungs and pleura are examined by acoustic and sensitivity percussion, together with auscultation of the lung field.
    The lung field
    - Dorsal margin is the lateral edge of the trunk musculature.
    - Cranial border is formed by the posterior edge of the triceps muscle. Caudal border extends from its dorsal extremity at the 11th intercostal space, across the middle of the 9th rib to about two fingerbreadths above the elbow joint.
    - On the right side the posterior border extends 1 or 2 finger-breadths further back (to about the 12th rib) compared with the left side.
    Acoustic percussion الطرق السمعى
    - The percussion hammer is held loosely between the thumb and index finger, and the pleximeter is pressed against the chest.
    - The first stage is horizontal percussion to establish the course of the caudal lung limits. This is best performed on the right side.
    - The next stage is vertical percussion from above to below, commencing at the cranial edge of the thoracic lung field and extending backwards at each intercostal space. This establishes any change in the normal lung resonance.
    Table 1. Summary of types of sound heard during percussion of the lung field
    SOUND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPES OF PERCUSION RESONANCE
    Good resonance without booming Normal lung sound
    A fairly loud, subtympanic sound It is heard over areas of emphysema and pneumothorax.
    Circumscribed areas of dullness They are produced by air-free pneumonic lesions, abscesses, tumours, enlarged lymph nodes, prolapse of digesta-filled portions of the digestive system through the diaphragm, or pronounced thickening of the pleura.
    Auscultationالسماع بإستخدام السماعه
    Normal respiratorz soundsأصوات التنفس الطبيعى
     Vesicular breathing is heard only in the caudodorsal third of the thoracic field. it resembles the start of the syllable “V”, whispered.
     In the rest of the field a mixed breathing sound occurs in which vesicular breathing is mixed with the dominant bronchial breathing, it resembles a prolonged syllable “ch”.
    Abnormal respiratory soundsأصوات التنفس الغير الطبيعى
     Areas of lung tissue that contain no air (pneumonic lesions, pulmonary oedema, large abscesses, neoplasms, Echinococcus cysts) are completely silent.
     Vesicular breathing sounds are enhanced during the deeper inspirations of dyspnoea and over emphysematous areas.
     Bronchial breathing is louder than normal in the various forms of stenosis of the upper respiratory tract and during laryngitis, tracheitis and bronchitis.


    Pathological variations in respiratory sounds:
    أصوات التنفس فى الحالات المرضية
     Rustling (crepitation), due to small-bubbled foam, occurs during pulmonary emphysema (like the light rubbing of fine sandpaper).
     Moist rales are heard when the bronchi contain watery secretion or exudation (pulmonary oedema, catarrhal bronchopneumonia, or aspiration pneumonia). It resembles simmering, the whipping up of froth .
     Dry rales are heard when the exudates thicken up to form thick mucus, resulting in elongated projections into the bronchial lumen and vibrate in air currents, producing dry rales.
     Friction sounds - Movement of parts of the pleura, thickened by inflammation, against each other produces friction sounds.
    Sounds may be heard during auscultation, and it is important not to confuse them with normal and abnormal breathing sounds:
    أصوات قد تتداخل مع أصوات التنفس
     Muscular tremor (which shakes the chest piece of the phonendoscope).
     Hair rustling (press the phonendoscope more firmly).
     Tooth grinding, swallowing, eructation and cud regurgitation.
     Grinding chewing (rumination), contractions of the forestomachs and painful moaning.
     Unilateral absence of breathing sounds may be due to pneumo-thorax.
    Examination of the digestive system فحص الجهاز الهضمى
    The general examination will have provided information on:
    - Appetite and feed intake, الشهيه وتناول الغذاء
    - Thirst and fluid intake, العطش وشرب الماء
    - Rumination, الاجترار
    - Eructation (or development of bloat), التكريع
    - Any regurgitation of feed or vomiting of stomach contents; الترجيع
    - Also the type and nature of defecation. التبرز
    Intake of feed and water تناول الغذاء وشرب الماء
    Appetite الشهيه
    Classification of inappetence according to the cause:
    o True or primary inappetence: It means absent or diminished appetite (due to poor feed quality or a disease of the GIT).
    o Secondary or symptomatic inappetence: It means poor appetite (due to diseases of organs unrelated to the digestive system, or a wide range of systemic diseases.
    The return of appetite is always a favourable sign for prognosis. The following types of appetite disorders are distinguished:
    - Diminished appetite, when the animal eats hesitantly or more slowly than its neighbours, or consumes only part of its ration, as during mild illnesses.
    - Complete inappetence (anorexia) occurs during persistent, severe diseases.
    - Abnormal appetite. - An appetite confined to certain feeds and abnormal appetite (licking disease, allotriophagia, pica) for substances other than feeds point to a metabolic or deficiency disorder.
    Ruminationالاجترار
    o Commencement of rumination, usually 1/2 to 1 1/2 hours after feeding.
    o Number and duration of rumination cycles, in a day there may be 4 to 24 periods of rumination each lasting 10 to 60 minutes, so that up to 7 hours may be spent ruminating every day.
    o Number of ruminated boluses: 360 to 790 a day.
    o Size of each ruminated bolus: about 80 to 120 g. A bolus can be recovered from the oral cavity by a quick thrust of the hand immediately after its return.
    o Number of jaw movements and chewing time per bolus: 40-70 chews within 45-60 seconds, depending on composition of the feed.


    Disorders of rumination occur as a result ofاسباب إضطرابات الاجترار
     Pathological changes in the mouth, oesophagus or forestomachs (foreign body trauma, functional gastric stenosis), or
     May accompany severe diseases affecting general health and located elsewhere in the body; consequently primary and secondary (symptomatic) disorders can be distinguished.
    Features to be watched for are:
    - Delayed onset of rumination after feeding;
    - Too few or too brief periods of rumination;
    - Too few chews per bolus;
    - Too short or too long duration of chewing per bolus;
    - Superficial, intermittent or absent rumination;
    - More rarely, faulty chewing or loss of the cud;
    - Abnormally frequent or prolonged rumination, accompanied by salivation, smacking the lips or grinding the teeth (in brain diseases, lead poisoning or the nervous form of acetonaemia).
    Rumen فحص الكرش
    The rumen is examined by:
    o Observation of the left flank,
    o Palpation (through the abdominal wall and through the rectum),
    o Auscultation,
    o Percussion, and
    o By collecting and testing a sample of rumen fluid.
    o Particular cases may require laparoscopy, rumenography, telemetric recording or (in calves) radiography.
    o Sometimes a diagnosis can be established only after exploratory rumenotomy.
    Observation الملاحظة
    Observation of the hollow of the left flank provides information on:
    - The degree of fullness of the rumen (hollow flank - not full; tensed - normal; bulging - overfull), and
    - The intensity of contractions, which are clearly visible only in cattle having a thin abdominal wall.
    Palpation التحسس
    - Abnormal filling with gas or foamy feed mass (bloat) produces taut, elastic tension with a more or less pronounced bulge in the dorsal part of the left flank.
    - Overloading of the rumen with solid food produces a firmer, barely yielding consistency.
    - In functional stenosis of the stomach the rumen is dilated, tone is abolished and it is usually overloaded with fluid or foamy food masses responding to punching with fluctuation and splashing.
    - During advanced rumen acidosis (lactic acid) the contents of the forestomachs are very fluid.
    Auscultation إستخدام السماعه
    Attention is paid to the nature, strength and frequency of rumen sounds, which in health cattle take the form of a periodic rustling sound, increasing, to a crescendo then falling away.
     The normal rate of rumen sounds is 2 or 3 strong contractions/ 2 minutes.
     Hypermottllty — increase in the rate of rumen movements — occurs during vagus stimulation.
     Hypomotility — decrease in the rate of rumen movements — occurs when a ration poor in fibrous structure is fed, during forestomach disorders (indigestion).
     Atony — stop of rumen movements — occurs during severe forestomach disorders (traumatic reticuloperitonitis, rumen acidosis, etc.).
    Acoustic percussion of the rumen الطرق السمعى للكرش
     Subtympanic sound: It is the normal rumen sound in the dorsal part of the left abdominal wall.
     Damped sound: Ventral to this there is a relative damping of the percussion sound. This zone becomes completely damped when the rumen is overloaded.
     Drum-like boom: In bloat (tympany).
     Tympanic sound: In left-sided abomasal displacement.
     Box sound: In fresh cases of traumatic reticuloperitonitis.
     Pain percussion: in rumenitis and large abscesses of the rumen.
    Tests for foreign bodies إختبارات للكشف وجود الاجسام الغريبة
    o Back grip: A fold of skin over the withers is pulled up so that the animal's back is suddenly pressed down.
    o Pole test: A pole 1-1 1/2 metres long is placed under the animal and held at each end by two assistants. The pole is pulled upwards slowly, and then allowed to fall suddenly.
    o Pain percussion: It is carried out with a fairly heavy hammer having a rubber head applied with short strokes.
    o Palpation for tenderness: A strong pressure is applied with the fist or the palm of the hand to the reticular projection field.
    o Leading the animal up and down a steep slope
    Increased sensitivity is manifested by signs of tenderness (a sighing grunt or brief holding of the breath).
    Liver الكبد
    Examination of the bovine liver commences with:
     Inspection of visible mucous membranes.
     Palpation and percussion of the liver region. Dorsally behind the right costal arch is the site for palpation of the liver by forceful pressure on the abdominal wall by the finger tips, just behind the last rib
     Examination of urine and faeces.
     Liver function test.
    Rectal exploration الاستكشاف عن طريق المستقيم
    o Rectal examination of the intestines includes the rectum itself, (e.g. thickness and tension of the wall).
    o Organs that can be felt through the rectum are:
    - The caudal loops of intestine,
    - Internal genital organs and parts of the peritoneum, rumen,
    - Left kidney (sometimes the caudal pole of the right kidney),
    - Aortic bifurcation, Bony pelvis, Sacrum,
    - Internal ilio-femoral lymph nodes, Urinary bladder
    o Pregnancy disgnosis


    • Conditions can be diagnosed through rectal examination:
    حالات يمكن تشخيصها بواسطة الاستكشاف عن طريق المستقيم
    1. Acute enteritis: mesenteric lymph nodes slightly enlarged;
    2. Chronic enteritis: mesenteric lymph nodes enlarged & firm (paratuberculosis or leukosis), or hard (tuberculous calcification); thickened wall (paratuberculosis.
    3. Intussusception (jejunal invagination).
    4. Volvulus and strangulation of the small intestine.
    5. Intestinal obstruction.
    6. Torsion of intestinal mesentery.
    7. Dilation and torsion of the caecum.
    8. Intestinal rupture with generalized peritonitis.
    9. Necrosis of adipose tissue.
    10. Dilation and overloading of the rumen
    11. Displacement of the abomasum to the right, with or without torsion
    12. Excessive placental fluid.
    13. Simple dilation of the abomasum.
    14. Displacement of the abomasum to the left.
    15. Accumulation of purulent exudate within the cavity of the omental bursa.
    16. Kidney disease.
    Examination of faecesفحص البراز
    - Faeces are inspected, felt and smelt for the characteristics such as amount, colour, and consistency.
    - Examination for parasites, bacteria, viruses or poisons may be indicated, particularly in diarrhoea, depending on concomitant circumstances (single animal affected or whole herd; type of feeding and management; environmental factors).
    Abnormal contents of faecal matterمحتويات غير طبيعيه بالبراز
    Abnormal contents are detected by inspection and feeling, as follows:
    - In very severe enteritis, faeces may be replaced by fluid.
    - Greyish-white mucus (sign of intestinal obstruction).
    - Fibrin (during severe catarrhal enteritis)
    - Blood from posterior segments of intestine appears bright red in the form of streaks on the surface of the faecal matter.
    - Blood from anterior portions (chocolate brown or black (melaena), and well-mixed with faecal matter.
    - Gas bubbles (in diarrhoeic excrement, and paratuberculosis).
    - Macroscopically visible parasites (tapeworm segments, roundworms) may be included here.
    Examination of the udder فحص الضرع
    For examination of the udder:
    - Case history (husbandry conditions, milking techniques, milking hygiene, treatment)
    - Inspection,
    - Palpation,
    - Inspection of the udder secretion, and
    - If necessary biochemical and microbiological examination of milk samples.
    Inspection الملاحظة (المشاهدة والتوقع)
    - Asymmetry of the udder is usually due to atrophy (or more rarely hypertrophy) of one quarter.
    - Enlargement of the whole udder or one quarter may conceal rupture of the rectus abdominis muscle, a flank rupture extending as far as the udder, abscess or haematoma.
    Palpation التحسس
    This includes: Teat canal, Teat cistern, Wall of the teat, Udder cistern, Udder skin and Glandular tissue of each quarter.
    - Swelled, hot, painful palpation (acute mastitis)
    - Hard indurated (fibrosed) udder tissue (chronic mastitis)
    - Physiological oedema occurs shortly before calving
    - A pathological form of oedema leading to induration of the skin and subcutaneous tissue “hard udder”.
    - Each quarter is felt in the milked-out state for consistency (granules, nodules, diffuse hardening, acute swelling, consistency).
    - Mastitis of infectious origin leads to enlargement of the mammary lymph nodes.



    رضوان الكامل

    المساهمات : 16
    تاريخ التسجيل : 06/08/2010

    رد: للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف رضوان الكامل في الجمعة أغسطس 06, 2010 10:35 pm






    MEMBERSHIP EXAMINATION



    JUNE/JULY 2007



    MEDICINE OF BEEF CATTLE

    PAPER 1


    Perusal time: 15 minutes

    Time allowed: TWO (2) Hours after perusal

    Answer ALL FOUR (4) questions.

    All questions are of equal value

    Subsections of Questions are of equal value unless stated otherwise


    PAPER ONE – MEDICINE OF BEEF CATTLE – 2007

    Question 1. Answer ONE of the following only, EITHER Part A OR Part B:
    (30 marks)
    EITHER

    PART A

    A herd of 450 yearling bulls has been wintered on a stand off pad and fed with grass silage and straw. The bulls had previously grazed on a rough agro-forestry block that had not been used for livestock for several years.

    In late August the bulls were moved to a 200 hectare farm in a cool temperate region and were assigned to paddocks in mobs of 30 animals each. This farm had been used for dryland beef and dairy heifer grazing. It had been converted to a cell grazing system and in the previous autumn 50% of the farm pastures were recultivated with contemporary high-yield perennial rye grass/clover mixes. Nitrogen was applied at the rate of 80 kg per hectare to the whole farm in the previous March and April. Pivot irrigation was installed to cover all areas. The winter had been cold, followed by a warm and moist early spring.

    One morning in late September the producer reported respiratory signs in the bulls on just one half of the farm.

    No further information is given in the initial request for you to attend.

    Answer ALL of the following:

    1. List the differential diagnoses that could account for the reported symptoms if they occurred:

    (a) only in the bulls kept on the ‘older, existing pasture’ half of the farm,

    (b) only in the bulls kept on the ‘recultivated pasture’ half of the farm.
    (6 marks)
    2. What is the single most likely disease condition, and the clinical signs of that condition that you would expect to observe upon your arrival at the property one(1) hour after receiving the call if:

    (a) only the bulls kept on the ‘older, existing pasture’ half of the farm are affected?

    (b) only the bulls kept on the ‘recultivated pasture’ half of the farm are affected?
    (6 marks)
    3. For the single most likely disease condition you nominated as an answer to EACH section of PART A question 2 (above):

    (a) Briefly note, where appropriate for the disease condition nominated, the aetiology; route of transmission; pathogenesis; and likely outcome one day and 21 days later. (6 marks)
    (b) What would your recommended treatment be? (6 marks)

    (c) What are your recommendations to the producer to prevent a similar event happening, or to reduce the number of animals affected next spring? (6 marks)

    Continued over Question 1 Part B/Medicine of Beef Cattle Paper 1 2007

    Continued Question 1 Part B/Medicine of Beef Cattle Paper 1 2007

    OR

    PART B

    A Maranoa (Queensland) feedlot with a capacity of 25,000 head purchases ‘backgrounded’ stock from several nearby producers. These Bos indicus cross stores are put in mixed groups of 100-to-a-pen after standard introductory treatments, that in this enterprise do not include any vaccinations. Three weeks after their arrival in July, the yard rider reports respiratory signs in several pens that contain some of these newly introduced cattle.

    No further information is given in the initial request for you to attend.

    Answer ALL of the following:

    1. List the differential diagnoses for this disease event. (6 marks)

    2. What are the TWO (2) most likely disease conditions, and the detailed clinical signs of those conditions that you would expect to observe upon your arrival at the feedlot one hour later. (6 marks)

    3. For EACH of the TWO (2) most likely disease conditions you nominated in PART B question 2(above):

    (a) Briefly note, where appropriate for the disease condition nominated, the aetiology; route of transmission; pathogenesis; and likely outcome (both for the pen mob and for an individual animal showing clinical signs at the time of your first examination) one day and 21 days later. (6 marks)

    (b) What would your recommended treatment be? (6 marks)

    (c) What are your recommendations to the producer to prevent a similar event happening, or to reduce the number of animals affected in the next batch of arrivals? (6 marks)

    Question 2. Answer ONE of the following only, EITHER Part A OR Part B:

    EITHER

    PART A

    1. List the disease conditions noted in the published literature for EACH of the following stages of the live export of Bos indicus OR Bos indicus cross cattle from North Western Australia: (10 marks)

    (a) during transport from grazing property to pre-embarkment holding yards

    (b) at the pre-embarkment holding yards

    (c) shipboard during the voyage to Eastern Indonesia (journey time: 24-48 hours).

    Continued over Question 2 Part A/Medicine of Beef Cattle Paper 1 2007

    Continued Question 2 Part A/Medicine of Beef Cattle Paper 1 2007


    2. Choose any ONE (1) of the disease conditions nominated in any section of the previous question- Part A Question 1(a), (b) or (c)- and discuss in detail the following with regard to the disease condition: aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, clinical pathology, treatment and control. (20 marks)
    OR

    PART B

    1. List the disease conditions noted in the published literature for each of the following stages of the live export of forward store Bos taurus cattle from South Western Australia: (10 marks)

    (a) during transport from grazing property to pre-embarkment holding yards

    (b) at the pre-embarkment holding yards

    (c) shipboard during the voyage to the Middle East (journey time 14-21 days).

    2. Choose any ONE (1) of the disease conditions nominated in section 1(c) only above and briefly discuss the following with regard to this disease condition: aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, clinical pathology, treatment and control. (20 marks)

    Question 3.

    A mob of 450 Bos taurus steers are grazing the river flats of a property in central NSW for approximately one month. The producer reports he has been getting some cases of steers found dead during his daily inspection over the last week.

    What would be your approach to this investigation to determine the cause of the deaths? In your answer:

    (a) List the differential diagnoses for this case. (5 marks)

    (b) Detail the case history required, the examination(s), the samples to be taken, the clinical pathology tests ordered, and your practical methods for confirming or eliminating diseases on your differential diagnosis list. (25 marks)

    Continued over/Medicine of Beef Cattle Paper 1 2007

    Continued Medicine of Beef Cattle Paper 1 2007


    Question 4. Answer ONE of the following only, EITHER Part A OR Part B:
    (30 marks)

    EITHER

    PART A

    Write notes on EACH of the following:

    (a) The range of clinical signs that might be displayed in a herd of 3000 Bos indicus breeders as a result of grazing on phosphorous deficient soils in the Western Kimberley region, and your suggested control strategies in response to these.
    (10 marks)

    (b) The clinical signs, preferred samples to be taken for confirmation of diagnosis and the specific treatment(s) you would administer for a case of severe Fasciola hepatica infection in a valuable yearling Bos taurus stud heifer from the region of the Murray river mouth in South Australia. (10 marks)

    (c) The risk factors for, pathogenesis of, clinical signs, and assessment of prognosis with lantana poisoning in cattle in Queensland. (10 marks)

    OR

    PART B

    Write notes on EACH of the following:

    (a) The sampling strategy, and a clear description of the specific methods involved in any tests done to confirm a suspected drench resistant Cooperia spp. problem on an intensive bull beef operation during spring in the cool temperate regions of New Zealand. (10 marks)

    (b) The aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, clinical pathology and treatment for a case of ‘tick fever’ in a Queensland Bos indicus store steer in February. (10 marks)

    (c) The disease conditions that prevent or reduce the ability of bulls to deliver viable spermatozoa to the cervix of fertile cows in a typical grazing enterprise in Australia. (10 marks)


    END OF PAPER



    MEMBERSHIP EXAMINATION



    JUNE/JULY 2007



    MEDICINE OF BEEF CATTLE

    PAPER 2


    Perusal time: 15 minutes

    Time allowed: TWO (2) Hours after perusal

    Answer FOUR (4) from the five questions only.

    All questions are of equal value

    Subsections of Questions are of equal value unless stated otherwise


    PAPER TWO – MEDICINE OF BEEF CATTLE – 2007



    1. Answer ONE (1) of the following only, EITHER Part A OR Part B: (30 marks)

    You have been asked to provide animal health advice to a large grain based feedlot enterprise under construction in the Darling Downs region in Queensland. This operation is looking to turn off Jap Ox grade beef after 300 days of feeding for export to the fictional country of Eutopia, which permits the use of in-feed antibiotics for all beef imports.

    EITHER

    Part A

    Describe TWO (2) disease conditions that are associated with the diet rations used and that occur in grain-based feedlots in Australia such as the one referred to above. Include in your answer the pathogenesis, clinical signs, clinical pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and impact on production of those disease conditions. Give specific strategies (nutritional or other) used in Australian or USA feedlots to prevent or reduce the occurrence of each of these disease conditions.

    OR

    Part B

    (a) Describe the assessments, animal health treatments and prophylaxis measures you would suggest for induction of animals to the feedlot. (7.5 marks)

    (b) List FIVE (5) disease conditions that are associated with the diet ration used and that occur in grain based feedlots in Australia such as the one described above, and briefly describe the standard policy(s) that you would suggest this enterprise enact for the ongoing assessment of the incidence of these five disease conditions in their operation? (7.5 marks)

    (c) For ONE (1) only of the five disease conditions nominated in Part B section (b) of this question (above), describe in detail the pathogenesis, clinical signs, clinical pathology, treatment and impact on production of the disease condition, and give specific strategies (nutritional or other) used in Australian or USA feedlots to prevent or reduce the occurrence of the disease condition. (15 marks)


    Continued over/Medicine of Beef Cattle 2007/Paper 2

    Continued/Medicine of Beef Cattle 2007/Paper 2

    2. The following graph represents the results of pregnancy testing and branding (2004 – 2006) for your client’s commercial beef herd run on three separate properties, Darrowby, Tunbridge and Bow Glen, in northern NSW, Australia. The graphs were compiled and presented by the owner for discussion following the completion of branding in September, after recording the performance of each of thirteen joining mobs of cattle in a herd of 920 breeders.

    The client is considered a good manager and record keeper, and has supplied EU markets for several years. The herd is self-replacing (females) with bulls sourced from several local bull sales. The whole herd is pregnancy tested each year in February and all non-pregnant females are culled (pregnancy rate = cows PTIC/total cows joined). At branding in September, all dry cows are drafted off and culled. (branding rate = wet cows/all cows retained after pregnancy testing). No significant dystocia or neonatal deaths were reported. All bulls passed a BBSE for physical examination and crush-side semen analysis prior to use each year. Serving tests were conducted in 2005. No sperm morphology was done. Joining mobs are all multiple sired and vary from 52 to 134 cows, and bulls are mated for 12 weeks. Although seasonal conditions have varied, the client retains reasonable fodder reserves for feed deficits and records body condition scores of breeders twice yearly at branding in August-September and at pregnancy testing in Jan-Feb. He commented that at no time did more than 10% of the herd fall below condition score 3/5 .











    Continued over Question 2/Medicine of Beef Cattle 2007/Paper 2

    Continued Question 2/Medicine of Beef Cattle 2007/Paper 2






    (a) Comment on the pregnancy and branding rates with reference to target rates. (5 marks)

    (b) Reproductive failure in beef herds is frequently multifactorial, but can be largely categorised into physical or physiological failure of bulls, physical or physiological failure of females and effects of reproductive pathogens. From the data and history provided, which of these categories is a more likely cause? Give reasons for your choice. (5 marks)

    (c) In addition to branding and pregnancy rates by property and years, what other herd data (that would be readily available) would be useful before deciding on a course of action? Provide a brief explanation of the data use in reproductive analysis. (5 marks)

    (d) List THREE (3) possible diseases that may explain these results, indicating your approach to diagnosis, treatment, control and/or prevention where appropriate. Include notes on how such diseases may have entered the herd. (15 marks)

    Continued over/Medicine of Beef Cattle 2007/Paper 2

    Continued/Medicine of Beef Cattle 2007/Paper 2


    3. A new client who recently purchased a sizeable beef breeding enterprise in your district, has made a specific appointment to discuss all vaccination options open to him. He states that the breeding herd will essentially be self–replacing but that he has applied for and intends to run a 1500 head feedlot (expandable to 5000 hd). The herd will supply the feedlot but steers and heifers may be purchased additionally for the feedlot.

    (a) Provide a comprehensive list of all cattle diseases for which there is a currently registered vaccine in your nominated state. (5 marks)

    (b) From this list, choose the vaccines that may have some application to this client. Advise what stages of production and which classes of stock within the enterprise would be targeted by the vaccines. (15 marks)

    (c) Briefly discuss the principles to be considered by this client when deciding which vaccines to implement into his management calendar. (10 marks)

    4. Much of the beef grazing systems in southern Australia involve the use of forage crops and introduced pastures to boost production. These feeds are grown for certain attributes to assist the feed supply curve, but can almost always be a health risk at particular times of growth or environmental conditions.

    Select FOUR (4) from the following list:

    Lucerne
    Forage Sorghum
    Forage oats
    Rye Grass
    Phalaris

    (a) Draw a feed growth curve for EACH of the chosen species. (6 marks)

    (b) For EACH of the chosen species, discuss in detail the potential risks associated with their consumption, including aetiology; pathogenesis; diagnosis; and where appropriate, any preventative measures and treatments. (24 marks)
    .



    Continued over/Medicine of Beef Cattle 2007/Paper 2


    Continued/Medicine of Beef Cattle 2007/Paper 2

    5. Australia and New Zealand, as island nations have an enviable record with bio-security, maintaining freedom from many diseases which give favourable access to export markets.

    (a) From the following diseases, list those diseases that can affect cattle AND are currently considered exotic to Australia. (5 marks)

    African Horse sickness
    Screw Worm Fly
    Bovine Brucellosis
    Bovine Malignant Catarrh
    Scrapie
    Lumpy Skin Disease
    Jembrana Disease
    Foot & Mouth Disease
    Rabies
    Rinderpest
    Actinomycosis
    Tuberculosis
    Vesicular Stomatitis
    Bovine Spongioform Encephalopathy
    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia
    Babesiosis
    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
    Bluetongue



    (b) From your listed exotic cattle diseases in Question 5(a). (above), choose THREE (3) and describe the clinical signs, necropsy findings and pathogenesis of the disease, including morbidity and mortality rates expected (15 marks). For your chosen THREE (3) diseases, briefly compare and contrast the likely route of incursion into Australia and the potential consequences to the Australian Beef Industry following such an incursion. (10 marks)



    END OF PAPER

    رضوان الكامل

    المساهمات : 16
    تاريخ التسجيل : 06/08/2010

    رد: للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف رضوان الكامل في الجمعة أغسطس 06, 2010 10:39 pm

    Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Diagnosis of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) – Pneumonia
    Physical examination
    • Attitude: The animal is usually depressed (moves slowly, hanging head, drooping ears, “knuckling” of hind fetlocks)
    • Thick nasal or eye discharge - Clear nasal discharge does not necessarily indicate respiratory disease, and may be normal early in the morning or during dry/dusty conditions.
    • Crusty muzzle
    • Rapid, shallow breathing
    • Moist cough
    • Sunken flanks - Decreased rumen fill indicates decreased feed intake. This may be used as supportive evidence that the animal has respiratory disease, but really indicates that the animal needs to be examined for why it is not eating. A full rumen should not keep you from examining an animal with other signs of disease; sick animals eat too.
    • Diarrhea (scours) - Diarrhea may accompany respiratory disease. However, also evaluate the animal for other digestive disorders such as acidosis.
    • Rectal Temperature – A common cut-off for identification of fever is 103.5F or 104F. Cattle with respiratory disease (non-chronic) nearly always have a fever. Other conditions common to cattle will also cause fever (acidosis, footrot, injury, etc.). Temperatures taken immediately after unloading from a truck or after standing in the sun can be above 104F due to environmental reasons unaccompanied by disease, therefore, readings taken at these times are not helpful for a diagnosis.
    • Respiratory movement – both the thorax and abdomen participate equally in breathing movements in cattle with normal lung function. Inspiratory dyspnea (present with bronchopneumonia) is characterized by more frequent breathing and longer and more forced inspiration. Expiratory dyspnea (present with emphysema) is characterized by abdominal breathing with stronger and longer expirations.
    • Lung auscultation – moist crackles are heard with bronchopneumonia when the bronchi contain watery secretion or exudation, as the exudate thickens the sound shifts to a dry crackle (described as: buzzing, growling, squeaking, screeching, chirping, etc.). Consolidated areas of lung associated with bronchopneumonia (or large abscesses) contain no air and are completely silent.

    Live animal laboratory submissions
    • Tracheal wash from an untreated animal early in a respiratory disease outbreak may reveal helpful diagnostic and therapeutic information
    • Throat and nasal swabs will always reveal growth of normal upper respiratory tract flora, some of which are pathogens in the lower respiratory tract. This information can be irrelevant and misleading.


    Necropsy
    • A necropsy starts with a good history
    o Age, sex, weight, and breed type
    o Place of death and position when found
    o History of nutritional management, current rations and days on that ration.
    • Examination of premises noting excess dust, mud, crowding, etc.
    • External examination
    o General appearance, thriftiness, nutritional status
    o Color and appearance of visible mucus membranes
    o Presence of discharges from any body opening
    o Evidence of swelling, fractures, wounds, etc.
    • Internal examination
    o Open the trachea and extend the incision into the bronchi and bronchioles.
    o Remove the heart and lungs - Palpate the lungs and give a lesion score
    0 - Normal
    1 - Slight (<10% involvement)
    2 - Moderate (10-30% involvement)
    3 - Severe (>30% involvement)
    o Note location and distribution of lung lesions
    o Note type of lung lesion (consolidation, broncho-pneumonia, emphysema, abscesses, fibrinous pleuritis, etc.)
    • Complete examination of digestive tract
    • Joints normally examined are: shoulder, carpus, hip, stifle, hock, and atlanto-occipital
    • Samples for laboratory submission:
    o Most necropsies should include obtaining fresh and fixed tissue samples, but these samples may or may not be submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for further examination.
     Only samples taken from freshly dead carcasses and animals that died early in the disease process are good candidates for fresh sample submission for culture
     Viral causes/contributors will often be cleared before death and are therefore difficult to isolate in many cases where they were important predisposing infections
     Bacterial populations can change in a pneumonic lesion so that the population that caused the initial insult and disease is overgrown by a subsequent population (P. multocida can overgrow M. haemolytica if an animal lives long enough even though the M. haemolytica caused the lung damage that led to death)
    o Culturing lungs from cattle previously diagnosed with pneumonia and treated with antibiotics is usually not helpful to diagnose the current problem nor to design control strategies.
    o Determining antimicrobial sensitivity from cattle previously treated with antibiotics is not helpful for rational therapy decisions.
    o Submission of lung and other tissues (liver, spleen, small intestine, lymph nodes, etc.) for histopath examination may be of diagnostic value
    Cause of BRD
    Three factors must be present for BRD to occur
    1) Stress – decreases immune response
    2) Viral infection – further reduces immune response (alveolar macrophages)
    a. Most commonly IBR, BVD, and PI3
    b. Frequently mixed infections rather than single virus infections
    3) Bacterial infection
    a. Most commonly Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida and Hemophilus somnus
    b. Frequently mixed infections

    Underlying Factors
    • Stress:
    o Environmental – cold, wet, hot, sudden temperature change
    o Physical – exhaustion, castration, dehorning, forced exercise, transportation
    o Psychological – weaning, new environment, new experiences (humans, horses, dogs, etc.), new penmates
    • 2 biggest stresses in calf’s life: 1) weaning, 2) commingling
    • Irritants
    o Diesel fumes
    o Dust

    Viral Factors
    • IBR (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis) (a.k.a. Rednose)
    o Highly contagious Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1)
    o Respiratory infection can result in rhinotracheitis (necropsy may reveal inflammation of the tracheal lining and exudate filling the tracheal lumen) and conjunctivitis (thick, yellow discharge from eyes)
    o Many times infection results in mild clinical signs and recovery
    o Usually, serious illness or death only occurs with secondary bacterial pneumonia
    o IBR can cause moderate (not life-threatening) illness without bacterial infection
    o Infection usually occurs in animals greater than 6 months of age (animals less than 6 mo. often possess maternal antibodies which reduce severity of infection)
    o IBR virus has been shown to impair alveolar macrophage function
    o Transmission is via nasal secretions and/or aerosol droplets
    o Source of the virus is usually from new contacts, but can be initiated in a group that has been together for several weeks if one of the cattle has reactivation of a latent virus (characteristic of herpes virus).
    o Outbreaks usually end within 2 to 4 weeks unless new animals are added
    o There are marked differences in virulence among field strains of IBR virus
    o Diagnosis
     Necropsy – no specific gross lesions – although IBR will cause reddening of tracheal mucosal, so will other infectious agents. IBR virus is usually absent by the time an animal dies due to secondary bacterial pneumonia
     PCR is available for nasal swabs or lung tissue
     Can also utilize virus isolation or immunoperoxidase diagnostic tests
    • IBR continued
    o Prevention
     Vaccination is considered to be fairly effective (field trial data is lacking)
     Modified live vaccine (IM or IN) confers some protection within 72 hours
     Modified live vaccine has been demonstrated to be safe in stressed cattle
     Maximum protection from ML vaccine requires at least 3 weeks
     Killed virus vaccines provide protection starting about 10 days after the second injection in a 2-injection series where the injections are given 2 to 3 weeks apart (too slow for use at arrival in stocker or feedlot situations)

    • BVD (Bovine Viral Diarrhea)
    o The natural virus is very immunosuppressive
    o Seroconversion to BVD during feeding period increases the risk of being pulled or dying from BRD
    o Being seropositive to BVD at arrival at a feedlot decreases the risk of being pulled or dying from BRD
    o BVD + Mannheimia is more severe than either agent by itself
    o BVD infection will immunosuppress animals and increase susceptibility to other disease
     Transient leukopenia
     Decreased macrophage locomotion and chemotaxis
     Impaired alveolar macrophage function
     Decreased ability of alveolar macrophages to phagocytize antigens
    o Summary = BVDV's role in BRD is primarily due to immunosuppression and synergism with other pathogens of the BRD complex
    o Diagnosis
     Necropsy – no specific gross lesions. BVD virus is usually absent by the time an animal dies due to secondary bacterial pneumonia (unless the animal is persistently infected with BVD).
     PCR is available for nasal swabs or lung tissue (refrigerated cotton or polyester swabs)
     Can also utilize virus isolation from fresh tissue
     Immunohistochemistry staining of fixed tissue (skin will be positive for persistently infected animals only [not for acute infections], gut and other tissues can be positive during acute infections)
    o Prevention
     Vaccination is considered to be fairly effective (field trial data is lacking)
     Modified live vaccine (IM) confer some protection within 72 hours
     Modified live vaccine has been demonstrated to be safe in stressed cattle
     Maximum protection from ML vaccine requires at least 3 weeks
     Killed virus vaccines provide protection starting about 10 days after the second injection in a 2-injection series where the injections are given 2 to 3 weeks apart (too slow for use at arrival in stocker or feedlot situations)


    • BRSV (Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus)
    o Virtually 100% of cattle infected
    o More commonly a problem in young cattle
    o Probably no relationship to AIP in feedlot cattle
    o Clinical signs can range from unapparent to severe
    o BRSV infection alone can be fatal in some situations
    o Gross: cranial ventral consolidation, caudal dorsal emphysema
    o co-infection with BVD leads to increased disease
    o co-infection with pathogenic bacteria is common in clinical cases
    o Seroconversion to BRSV during the first month in the feedlot increased the risk of being pulled for BRD
    o Virus is changing over time - no strains from the 1970s are circulating today - probably changing due to Ab pressure from vaccination
    o Genetic changes in BRSV is an important issue for vaccine development
    o Circulation of BRSV appears to occur in closed herds - other species not a likely a common cause of transmission
    o Early 1980s BRSV vaccination associated with enhanced disease
     MLV vaccination early in an outbreak enhanced disease
     Recent study showed a killed BRSV (formalin inactivated) vaccine enhanced disease at subsequent challenge. The adjuvant (alum) may have been part of the problem (interaction between alum adjuvant and BRSV virus)
     Conclusion = sometimes BRSV vaccination enhances disease (but not always). And some trials show protection against BRD in vaccinated calves versus un-vaccinated controls
     No reports of adverse reactions to American vaccines in 10 years
     No published research exploring effect on feedlot BRD
     Effect of vaccination and/or exposure to BRSV may be due to: genetics of cattle, previous exposure to BRSV naturally or via vaccination, or concurrent infection with other virus or bacteria

    • Parainfluenza 3 (PI3)
    o Preinfection with PI3 virus has been shown to allow the development of a secondary bacterial pneumonia, while non-viral infected animals were able to clear the infection without disease.
    o Has been shown to impair alveolar macrophage function

    Bacterial Factors
    • Mannheimia haemolytica (Pasteurella haemolytica)
    o Commonly found in the nasopharyngeal area of healthy cattle – in most situations, the bacteria is unable to move to the lower respiratory tract and cause pneumonia.
    o Normal, healthy animals with experimental lung exposure to the bacteria are also resistant to disease
    o Stressed cattle or cattle with a mild viral infection can have severe, life-threatening pneumonia if infected with a fairly small number of M. haemolytica
    • Mannheimia haemolytica continued
    o Mechanisms of lung damage during BRD
    • Only log-phase M. haemolytica produce leukotoxin
    • Leukotoxin is the key factor contributing to the lung damage
    • Alveolar macrophages are the central cell involved in lung pathology
    • Leukotoxin and endotoxin induce cytokine production from alveolar macrophage (causes inflammation - edema and recruitment of neutrophils) - the neutrophils then produce reactive oxygen intermediates and lysosomal enzymes (proteases) that produce the damage associated with pneumonia.
    • Pulmonary over expression of inflammatory cytokines are associated with lung pathology due to its chemotaxic properties of increasing the population of neutrophils in the alveolar spaces

    • Pasteurella multocida
    o Does not have leukotoxin
    o Usually broncho-pneumonia or fibrinous broncho-pneumonia
    o More commonly found in dairy calves versus feedlot cattle
    o More of a problem in chronic cases
    o Associated with previous damage - P. multocida was cultured out of damaged lungs that were experimentally infected with Mannheimia hemolytic......has the ability to overgrow other pathogens if the animal lives long enough even if it wasn't the pathogen causing early lesions.

    • Hemophilus somnus
    o Commensual organism of reproductive and respiratory tracts of cattle
    o Causes septicemic disease: septicemia, TEME, myocarditis, superative polyarthritis, pleuritis, abortion (rare)
    o Basic lesion is thrombosis and vasculitis
    o Pneumonic lesion is a bronchopneumonia that is grossly undifferentiated from M. haemolytica
    o Open heart and visualize cross-section of ventricle wall to look for myocarditis lesion
    o Considered more of a problem in northern climates in N. American (Canada). Debate exists as to importance in more temperate portions of N. America (U.S.)

    Other Microbial Factors
    • Mycoplasma bovis
    o Pneumonia – usually later in feeding period (chronic manifestation)
    o Arthritis and tenosynovitis are common manifestations of M. bovis
     10% or more of pneumonia cases due to M. bovis will have arthritis/tenosynovitis
     90% or more of arthritis cases due to M. bovis will have pneumonia
    o Also reported to cause middle ear infections – mostly lighter calves

    • Mycoplasma bovis continued
    o M. bovis strains range from non-pathogenic to severely pathogenic
     This fact and commonness of positive serology in healthy animals makes serology unhelpful for diagnosis of disease.
    o Stress is an important component of disease – healthy non-stressed calves can be infected without disease.
    o May be primary pathogen, but many believe it acts as a secondary invader to BVD, M. Haemolytica, or P. multicida
    o Dr. Rosenbusch (Iowa State) has shown that you can go into a pen or group of normal cattle and isolate M. bovis from more than 60% of the cattle in their nostrils. So, the issue isn’t really why is it there, but rather why does it affect some cattle and not others. Some suggest that it is an opportunist that can go septic in cattle with poor immune responses to respiratory disease, even when the initial therapy gets the primary pathogen.
    o Is not considered a contagious disease – again animal factors are more important than infection
    o Diagnosis
     Necropsy - may present as abscessing pneumonia or fibrinous bronchiolitis (very different grossly and on histopath)
    • Abscessing:
    o Tend to be cranial ventral distribution
    o Small yellow raised lesions above the pleural surface or extensive involvement
    o May involve both or only one lung
    • Fibrinous:
    o Necrotic and fibrotic areas (chronic lesions)
    o May also have fibrinous pleuritis
     Tissue: refrigerated (not formalized) lung for IHC, joint fluid (refrigerated) for culture
     Serology – worthless, no way to interpret, many healthy cattle are positive
    o Treatment
     Pneumonia is unresponsive to many antibiotics – because Mycoplasma organisms have no cell wall, any antimicrobial that acts on the cell wall will be ineffective (Naxcel, Penicillin, Ampicillin, Erythromycin)
     Some sensitivity to Tetracycline
     Many cases are not clinically sensitive to any antimicrobial
    o Prevention
     No commercial vaccine available – recent trials show much worse clinical lung scores in vaccinated calves vs. controls
     No reports of success with autogenous products



    Non-Infectious Lung Pathology
    • AIP (Acute Interstitial Pneumonia)
    o General term describing damage to alveolar wall
    o Diagnosis
     Physical exam - Sway back stance, splayed front feet, head extended, open mouth breathing, no fever, usually (always) fatal
     Gross lesions - dorsal caudal location, meaty, failure to collapse, lobules are independently moveable - not adhered between lobules
     Main histological features: fibrin and hyaline membrane in pneumoncytes
     Dust, allergies, high rumen pH, best doing cattle ????
    o Proposed etiology
     3MI (3 methyl indole)
    • Conversion of tryptophan to 3MI
    • Blood levels of 3MI metabolites were higher in AIP confirmed and AIP suspect cattle compared to controls

    o 2 forms of AIP
    1) Hyaline membrane form - interstitial spaces have hyaline membrane and greatly decreased airspace (acute = pen-deads)
    2) Epithelial proliferation form (maybe less acute cases)

    o Epidemiology
     More common in heifers than steers (4.4 X odds ratio)
     Cattle on feed greater then 60 days had a Relative risk of 8.3 greater for AIP than cattle with DOF less than 60 days
     Seasonal effect - highest rate in summer
     Double risk if there is at least one digestive dead in a pen
     The epidemiology of BRSV and AIP are not the same

    o Differential Diagnosis for Atypical Interstitial Lung Lesions in Cattle
    Hypersensitivity diseases
    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (farmer’s lung)
    Milk allergy
    Disease of unknown cause
    Fog fever or acute bovine pulmonary emphysema
    Diffuse fibrosing alveolitis
    Viral disease
    BRSV
    Parasitic disease
    Dictyocaulus viviparous
    Ascaris lumbricoides Plant poisoning
    Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)
    Zieria arborescens (stinkwood)
    Perilla frutescens (purple mint)
    Brassica
    Other plants
    Exposure to irritant gases and fumes
    Nitrogen dioxide
    Smog
    Zinc oxide
    Chlorine and hydrogen sulfide





    Prevention of BRD
    • The benefit of vaccination upon arrival is uncertain; in some cases these programs may be detrimental.
    • Using bacterins or killed vaccines to provide protective immunity when given on arrival is usually not very successful. However, it has been demonstrated that modified-live viral vaccines will likely provide protective immunity within days.
    • The success of vaccination to prevent BRD has not been stellar. While some trials show a benefit to vaccination, others show no improvements in health parameters in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls
    • Texas Ranch to Rail: Morbidity rate and vaccine type
    12% for MLV viral vaccines during preconditioning period
    36% for killed viral vaccines during preconditioning period
    • Prevention strategies require coordination with cow-calf producers prior to shipment (nutritional, anthelmintic, Immunologic, and stress control program).
    o Being weaned at least 45 days prior to shipment
    o Consuming a ration similar to what will be offered at new location
    o Being dewormed shortly prior to shipment (timing depending on situation)
    o Receiving two vaccinations for the viruses IBR, BVD, and PI3 with the second vaccination occurring at least two weeks prior to shipment
    o BRSV vaccination should be considered in higher risk animals (calves)
    o Vaccination against Mannheimia haemolytica and its associated leukotoxin should be considered in some situations. Preconditioned calves with effective stimulation of immunity to the primary viral pathogens may not benefit from vaccination against M. haemolytica. If included in the BRD prevention program, two doses of vaccine should be given, with the second being administered at least 2 weeks prior to shipment.
    • For highly stressed calves, arrival pens that have 50 animals or less are ideal
    • Cattle should only be shipped if dry weather is predicted for shipment and after arrival
    • The use of injectable antibiotics as metaphylaxis therapy can reduce the effects of bacterial infections (morbidity rate, time of onset of BRD, re-pull rate, mortality rate).

    Treatment of BRD
    • Antibiotic choice
    o Once cattle are identified as needing treatment for respiratory disease, they are moved to a treatment area and treated with at least a three-day protocol.
    o The antibiotics used should reach effective concentrations in diseased lung, and be effective against the bacterial organism that is causing pneumonia.
    o Several very good antibiotic choices exist and the final determination of which product to use is based on how the antibiotic distributes itself in the calf’s body, laboratory determination of susceptibility of the bacterial organisms to the antibiotic, and previous clinical response on that particular farm.
    o A high incidence of re-pulls indicates that either the cattle were not evaluated properly at the end of the initial treatment period, or the initial treatment was not adequately effective.
    o There is little reason to combine another antimicrobial with the first-line antimicrobials available today.
    o Extralabel use (ELDU) is also questionable for bovine respiratory disease given the effective, labeled drugs available today.
    o Veterinarians have the legal ability to prescribe ELDU of a drug under the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act (AMDUCA) and the regulations that codify this act.
     A valid Veterinary Client Patient Relationship (VCPR) is required for ELDU to be legal.
     The veterinarian involved in the VCPR must determine that no drug labeled for the indication is effective when used according to label directions.
     The veterinarian is then required to first consider using labeled drugs in an extra label manner before moving to drugs labeled for other indications, other animals, or for humans.
     Compounding drugs for ELDU is permissible only when the veterinarian determines that there are no drugs produced for animal or human use that may be used in their current form to treat the condition.
     Compounding may only be performed using drugs that have a veterinary or human label.
     The use of bulk drugs for compounding by veterinarians or pharmacists (unless on a specific list produced by the FDA) is illegal. An example of a bulk drug would be oxytetracycline powder imported in a bag from China.
     While you may use cost as a consideration for selecting between labeled drugs, this is not a valid reason for selecting ELDU under the AMDUCA regulations.

    • Number of treatments
    o There is little reason to treat an animal more than 3 times (3 complete treatment regimens) for the same BRD episode

    • Ancillary therapy
    o Fresh hay and water are always available in the sick-pen
    o Cattle that are dehydrated are often given oral fluids with a stomach tube in addition to antibiotic therapy.
    o Sick cattle are usually placed on a higher roughage diet than the home pen cattle. The diet is routinely 60 to 70% concentrate with at least a 15% all natural protein level.
    o When illness within a pen suddenly increases or when feed intake drops, revaccination with a modified live IBR vaccine will generally reduce morbidity. An antibiotic administered concurrently aids in reducing rate of illness further.
    o Use of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in addition to antimicrobial therapy for BRD has not been found to impact any measurable indication of treatment success.
    o Use of a glucocorticoid (Dexamethasone etc.) in addition to antimicrobial therapy for BRD cases has been found to increase the repull, retreat, and mortality percentages of cattle compared to treatment with an antimicrobial alone.
    Evaluation of BRD Treatment / Control
    • Using Records to Evaluate Your Therapeutic Program
    o Records should to enable you to determine how many cattle are being treated, how well the cattle are responding to treatment, how well BRD cases are identified, and how many of those treated end up as mortalities.
    o Keep records to evaluate the following
    • Is our preventative program working?
    • Am I catching them early enough when they do get sick?
    • Am I satisfied with the response to therapy we are getting?

    • Treatment response (Treatment success) is calculated by subtracting mortalities, treatment failures, and relapses from total morbidity, then dividing this number by total morbidity. We would like to see 80-85% of the first treatment animals quickly return to normal and never be treated again. We may have to settle for around 65% in high-risk cattle. A low first treatment success rate may be due to a poor case definition leading to cattle only being treated in advanced stages of the disease (this can also be due to receiving the cattle in an advanced stage of BRD). It may also be due to an inappropriate drug or regimen choice, or cattle with immune systems that are unable to support the antimicrobial. If you are using a reasonable drug choice and regimen, a lot of time can be wasted switching and/or adding drugs when the real reason for treatment failure lies somewhere else. If you switch drugs around long enough, one of the new regimens will be in effect when things turn around. Often, this new regimen gets the credit and becomes a favorite as the “silver bullet”.

    • Retreat (Repeat) percentage is the number of animals requiring a second treatment of the same disease occurrence because their clinical appearance markedly deteriorated during the 72 hours following initial diagnosis and treatment (i.e. treatment failure), divided by the total number of treated cattle.

    Second and third treatments for animals that did not respond to the first treatment or that have relapsed usually result in success rates of around 50-60%. Keep in mind that you are now dealing with the toughest cases and that a lower response should be expected.

    • Case fatality is determined by dividing the number of mortalities by the number treated. We would like to see this figure in the 1-3% range for low-risk cattle and in the 3-5% range for high-risk cattle. High case fatality rates may be due to treating too late (poor case definition or stale cattle), an inappropriate drug regimen choice, or an inadequate immune system. Case fatality rates of zero or very close to zero makes us wonder if too many cattle are being treated. If a large percentage of the mortalities are occurring either prior to treatment or within 2-3 days of the first treatment, this indicates that the cattle are not receiving treatment soon enough. We typically expect the chronics to equal or slightly exceed the number of mortalities.

    • Relapses (Cattle that are considered successes at the end of the first regimen but that are treated again within 21 days of first treatment) should be 10-15% ideally. A lot of factors can influence this rate, including case definition for treatment success and relapse, effectiveness of the chosen drug regimen, and the immune status of the animals.
    Cattle that have been treated more than 21 days previously are considered a new case.

    Effect of BRD
    • Estimated cost of disease in stocker calves: includes medicine, lost performance, and death loss....$35/head, $7-9/cwt. ....not included in cost is cost in performance and carcass for the next segment (feedlot)
    Never sick 2.00 lbs. daily gain
    Sick, treated 1.54 lbs. daily gain (25% reduction)
    Sick, not treated 1.02 lbs. daily gain (50% reduction)

    Evidence from the Texas Ranch to Rail program as well as other research has given evidence that animals that have pneumonia (BRD) at some time in their life to the extent that lung lesions can be seen at slaughter are less likely to grade choice and tend to have lower yield grades than cattle that do not experience pneumonia. Work at Oklahoma State University showed that feedlot steers treated for respiratory disease had lower (P<0.05) final live weights, ADG, hot carcass weight, and less external and internal fat than those not treated for BRD. In addition, Gardner et al. (1999) showed that steers with lung lesions at slaughter had lower daily gains, lighter hot carcass weight, less internal fat, lower marbling scores, and greater longissiumus shear force values after seven days of aging than from steers without lung lesions (P<0.05). Later work at Oklahoma State also showed that final live weight was 3 to 4 lbs. less for heifers that were treated for BRD and hot carcass weights (HCW) also averaged 3 lbs. less for cattle that received multiple antibiotic treatments. Heifers treated for BRD tended to have lower (leaner) U.S.D.A. yield grades (2.53 vs 2.42 vs 2.36 for 0, 1, and >1 treatments, respectively). Heifers that received two or more treatments for BRD during the receiving period had markedly lower (P=.02) marbling scores, with a 25% reduction in the percentage of carcasses grading U.S.D.A. Choice or above for heifers that received multiple treatments (66.19 vs 59.36 vs 41.11 for 0, 1, and >1 treatments, respectively). The authors’ estimated economic loss from BRD due to carcass value changes by noting that combining decreased marbling score and reduced carcass weight, gross value was decreased by about $4/head for heifers with one treatment for BRD and $19/head for heifers receiving more than one treatment for BRD. Medical costs for these groups averaged $7.48 and $18 respectively. By adding these costs, one finds that heifers in the Oklahoma State trial, heifers that were never treated for BRD produced a net return (carcass basis) that was $11.48/head more than heifers treated once for BRD, and $37.34/head more than those treated two or more times.



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    Admin

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    تاريخ التسجيل : 22/03/2010
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    شكر وتقدير

    مُساهمة من طرف admin في السبت أغسطس 21, 2010 8:15 pm

    اشكرك جزيل الشكر د.رضوان الكامل ونرجو ان نري المزيد من المشاركات التي تثري المنتدي
    وجزاك الله خير الجزاء

    د.محمد زنباع

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    تاريخ التسجيل : 08/10/2010

    رد: للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف د.محمد زنباع في الجمعة أكتوبر 15, 2010 11:48 am

    لماذا هذا الموضوع للمديرين فقط

    ابو احمد محمد

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    تاريخ التسجيل : 25/12/2010

    رد: للتحميل "ثاني اكبر موسوعه بيطريه" في العالم

    مُساهمة من طرف ابو احمد محمد في السبت ديسمبر 25, 2010 7:07 am

    لم استطع مشاهدة الملف ارجو المساعده

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